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From page 80...
... Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework 4-6 FULL FARE-FREE TRANSIT AGENCIES
From page 81...
... Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework 4-7 AREA REGIONAL TRANSIT (ART)
From page 82...
... Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework 4-8  Make transit more accessible for all county residents by reducing the financial burden of travel  Improve regional environmental justice EVALUATION  A technical memorandum produced after 3-year pilot included: − Data on service, finances, and ridership − Analysis of changes in ridership patterns − Surveys of operators, transit riders, and the public  The transit agency also conducted literature review to understand findings in greater context. OUTCOMES  Ridership increased 140% in the first year.
From page 83...
... Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework 4-9 CACHE VALLEY TRANSIT DISTRICT (CVTD) Cache Valley, Utah Agency Statistics (2019)
From page 84...
... Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework 4-10 FARE-FREE POLICY GOALS  Encourage the public to use public transit  Simplify management of the transit system by avoiding the additional administrative burden of fare collection  Make transit accessible for everyone  Contribute to a strong local economy by allowing users to have more disposable income to use in the local economy EVALUATION  CVTD uses voter surveys to gauge rider and non-rider support for many aspects of the transit system, including the zero-fare program.  The transit agency evaluates its zero-fare policy every five years and looks at the qualitative and quantitative impacts of charging fares.
From page 85...
... Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework 4-11 CORVALLIS TRANSIT SYSTEM (CTS) Corvallis, Oregon Agency Statistics (2019)
From page 86...
... Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework 4-12 FARE-FREE POLICY GOALS  Improve the environmental impact of local transportation by encouraging transit ridership  Expand access to transit for everyone EVALUATION  CTS did not establish specific goals or objectives that could be measured before implementing fare-free transit.  Success of the program is measured quantitatively through ridership and qualitatively through informal community feedback.
From page 87...
... Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework 4-13 DASH Alexandria, VA Agency Statistics (2019) Agency Type: Urban local Urban Area Poverty Rate: 8% Service Area Population: 0.2 million Service Area: 16 sq.
From page 88...
... Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework 4-14 FARE-FREE POLICY GOALS  Bring back ridership lost during the pandemic and promote usage of the new network  Help achieve the city's environmental goals  Provide financial relief for all low-income riders without an application and income validation process that would act as a barrier to potential beneficiaries EVALUATION  A fare study was completed during the pandemic that evaluated full zero-fare service, zero-fare for low-income residents, and half-price fares for low-income residents. Evaluation criteria included cost per benefitting rider, administrative costs, equity benefits, and ridership impacts.
From page 89...
... Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework 4-15  Due to the reduced ridership from the pandemic, the ridership increase will likely not be high enough to require additional service, lowering early costs. GOLINE Indian River County, Florida Agency Statistics (2019)
From page 90...
... Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework 4-16 EVALUATION  As the system has always been fare-free, it is difficult to evaluate what is attributable to the lack of fares. OUTCOMES  Indian River Transit is ranked as the most efficient transit agency in Florida, with the highest number of riders per local dollar of investment.
From page 91...
... Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework 4-17 GREATER RICHMOND TRANSIT COMPANY (GRTC) Greater Richmond, VA Agency Statistics (2019)
From page 92...
... Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework 4-18 FARE-FREE POLICY GOALS  End the regressive nature of fare collection, especially because the majority of GRTC riders earn less than the federal poverty rate and are people of color  Rebound from pandemic ridership loss and use higher ridership to open up new funding opportunities EVALUATION  During the pilot program, GRTC plans to conduct an analysis on the operational, social, and economic impact of zero-fare.  The continued extension of the program is contingent upon funding and GRTC board approval.
From page 93...
... Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework 4-19 INTERCITY TRANSIT Thurston County, Washington KEY TAKEAWAYS  Intercity Transit launched a five-year "zero-fare" demonstration project in January 2020 after they evaluated the feasibility of fare-free transit service.  Program marketing promoted zero-fare by drawing parallels to other free community services, such as libraries and parks.
From page 94...
... Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework 4-20  Improve operational efficiency and reduce administrative costs incurred by collecting fares EVALUATION  Evaluation of the pilot is difficult because the program started two months prior to travel restrictions and reduced transit demand due to COVID-19 pandemic in March 2020.  No specific goals were established to evaluate the pilot.
From page 95...
... Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework 4-21 KANSAS CITY AREA TRANSPORTATION AUTHORITY (KCATA) Greater Kansas City, MO Agency Statistics (2019)
From page 96...
... Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework 4-22 FARE-FREE POLICY GOALS  Provide economic benefits to customers, in particular low-income riders  Improve mobility and access to transit  Reverse ridership decline and increase operating efficiency  Reduce fare disputes EVALUATION  The Mid-America Regional Council Impact Analysis on the program found that equity benefits will vary depending on how zero-fare service is funded in the future.  KCATA obtained federal funding to study the post-implementation health outcomes and impacts of zero-fare service and hopes to use these results to bring on healthcare funding partners.
From page 97...
... Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework 4-23 LINK TRANSIT Chelan and Douglas Counties, WA Agency Statistics (2019) Agency Type: Small urban/rural Urban Area Poverty Rate: 13% Service Area Population: 0.1 million Service Area: 197 sq.
From page 98...
... Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework 4-24 FARE-FREE POLICY GOALS  Attract ridership  Improve operational efficiency  Reduce administrative costs incurred by collecting fares EVALUATION  A fare study was completed during the pandemic, including a feasibility evaluation of fare-free transit service.  Evaluation criteria included ridership and productivity impacts, increased operating costs, foregone farebox revenue, and on-time performance improvements.
From page 99...
... Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework 4-25 MOUNTAIN LINE Missoula, Montana Agency Statistics (2019) Agency Type: Small urban/rural Urban Area Poverty Rate: 13% Service Area Population: 0.1 million Service Area: 70 sq.
From page 100...
... Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework 4-26 FARE-FREE POLICY GOALS  Attract ridership  Improve operational efficiency and reduce administrative costs incurred by collecting fares  Improve environmental impact of local transportation by encouraging transit ridership  Make transit access more equitable by reducing the financial burden of travel  Frame transit as a public service EVALUATION  The transit agency had no specific quantitative evaluation criteria for the feasibility of the program other than evaluating financial health to ensure the program was sustainable.  Mountain Line conducted a rider survey in the second year of the program and found that almost half of respondents were riding more frequently after the removal of fares.
From page 101...
... Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework 4-27 PARTIAL FARE-FREE TRANSIT AGENCIES
From page 102...
... Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework 4-28 DENVER REGIONAL TRANSPORTATION DISTRICT (RTD) Greater Denver, CO Agency Statistics (2019)
From page 103...
... Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework 4-29 FARE-FREE POLICY GOALS  Increase efficiency of transit with faster service and all-door boarding. EVALUATION  RTD did not evaluate the current fare-free programs before or after implementation.
From page 104...
... Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework 4-30 HOUSTON METRO Greater Houston, TX Agency Statistics (2019) Agency Type: Large urban regional Urban Area Poverty Rate: 14% Service Area Population: 3.8 million Service Area*
From page 105...
... Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework 4-31  Encourage paratransit riders to use fixed-route service when possible by removing the financial barrier for paratransit-eligible riders EVALUATION  METRO evaluated a variety of fare-free transit service alternatives including fare-free on all or some services, fare-free for students, and fare-free during off-peak hours  No ridership surveys or outreach was conducted as part of the fare-free study.  The study did not evaluate any potential equity or social outcomes, but staff believe the inclusion of these factors would have been useful in their evaluation framework.
From page 106...
... Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework 4-32 IOWA CITY TRANSIT Iowa City, Iowa Agency Statistics (2019) Agency Type: Small urban/rural Urban Area Poverty Rate: 20% Service Area Population: <0.1 million Service Area: 25 sq.
From page 107...
... Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework 4-33 FARE-FREE POLICY GOALS  Increase ridership while balancing revenue goals  Improve passenger experience  Streamline fare structure and policies  Make transit an affordable option EVALUATION  The Iowa City Area Transit Study, a comprehensive review of both Iowa City Transit and neighboring Coralville Transit fares and services, was finalized in February 2020, and included a fare-free analysis.  The Study estimated the ridership increase could result in an annual operating cost increase of between $1.3 and $1.4 million for fixed-route and $745,000 and $872,000 for paratransit.
From page 108...
... Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework 4-34 LOS ANGELES METRO Los Angeles County, CA Agency Statistics (2019) Agency Type: Large urban regional Urban Area Poverty Rate: 13% Service Area Population: 8.6 million Service Area: 1,500 sq.
From page 109...
... Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework 4-35 FARE-FREE POLICY GOALS  Attract ridership  Make transit access more equitable by reducing the financial burden of travel for low-income communities  Improve operational efficiency and reduce administrative costs incurred by collecting fares  Reduce emissions from local transportation by encouraging transit ridership  Increase operator safety by minimizing fare collection conflicts EVALUATION  The transit agency is the largest by far to test fare-free transit and the pilot evaluation will collect significant data and feedback.  A study to assess ridership increases, benefits, and costs will supplement the pilot.
From page 110...
... Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework 4-36 MASSACHUSETTS BAY TRANSPORTATION AUTHORITY (MBTA) Greater Boston, MA Agency Statistics (2019)
From page 111...
... Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework 4-37  Fare price and farebox recovery are lower for buses than for the other modes operated by the MBTA. FARE-FREE POLICY GOALS  Economic development along a major corridor  Affordable and equitable transportation  Making transit more reliable through decreased boarding times from all-door boarding EVALUATION  To evaluate the pilot program, the MBTA and the City of Boston will analyze ridership, service impacts, trip times, rider experience, economic impact for riders, and rider equity.
From page 112...
... Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework 4-38 RIDE ON Montgomery County, MD Agency Statistics (2019) Agency Type: Urban local Urban Area Poverty Rate: 8% Service Area Population: 1 million Service Area: 495 sq.
From page 113...
... Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework 4-39 FARE-FREE POLICY GOALS  Equity, through minimizing financial burdens and increasing access to the transportation system  Increase ridership  Improve customer experience  Improve transit operations and performance  Climate and sustainability EVALUATION  MCDOT conducted a Fare Equity Study in 2021 to evaluate zero-fare and reduced-fare options, focusing on four areas of analysis: equity, fiscal impacts, ridership, and fare program administration.  The fare study final recommendation to the County Council was to return to fare collection at a reduced price, while retaining the partial fare-free programs from before the pandemic.
From page 114...
... Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework 4-40 SAN FRANCISCO MUNI San Francisco, CA Agency Statistics (2019) Agency Type: Urban local Urban Area Poverty Rate: 9% Service Area Population: 0.9 million Service Area: 49 sq.
From page 115...
... Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework 4-41 FARE-FREE POLICY GOALS  Promote affordability  Provide service to students travelling to and from school and extracurricular activities  Legitimize the rides of the population that was already riding but unable to pay and taking away the fear of fare evasion citations EVALUATION  No official review was conducted for the 2013 programs.  Muni has conducted ridership surveys with the school district but has been unable to reach the entire population.
From page 116...
... Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework 4-42 SANDY AREA METRO Greater Sandy, Oregon Agency Statistics (2019) Agency Type: Small urban/rural Urban Area Poverty Rate: Not available Service Area Population: Not available Service Area: Not available Passenger Trips: 123,000 Operating Expense: $1.4 million Farebox Recovery: 6% KEY TAKEAWAYS  The transit agency started as fare-free, introduced fares, and now provides free-fares for local service.
From page 117...
... Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework 4-43 FARE-FREE POLICY GOALS  Support local businesses by making it easier and less expensive to travel for goods and services  Attract ridership  Improve operational efficiency and reduce administrative costs incurred by collecting fares EVALUATION  No official evaluation was undertaken after the introduction of fares, or after the removal of the intown fares, but passenger trip data showed a clear impact on ridership.  Public surveys and meetings gave feedback on the fare structure.
From page 118...
... Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework 4-44 STEAMBOAT SPRINGS TRANSIT Steamboat Springs, Colorado Agency Statistics (2019) Agency Type: Resort community Urban Area Poverty Rate*
From page 119...
... Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework 4-45 FARE-FREE POLICY GOALS  Improve financial and operational efficiency by reducing boarding times and removing fare collection costs  Attract ridership  Make system more competitive by aligning with the fare-free policies of transit agencies in similar resort communities EVALUATION  The transit agency adjusted their program when it was not reaching program goals.  Recommendations for other transit agencies include conducting an early and ongoing evaluation and testing fare-free transit with a soft opening to iron out difficulties.
From page 120...
... Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework 4-46 UTAH TRANSIT AUTHORITY Wasatch Front, Utah Agency Statistics (2019) Agency Type: Large urban regional Urban Area Poverty Rate: 9% Service Area Population: 1.9 million Service Area: 737 sq.
From page 121...
... Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework 4-47 FARE-FREE POLICY GOALS  Attract ridership  Improve air quality by removing cars from the road EVALUATION  UTA had not conducted any evaluations or studies of the partial fare-free transit.  The grant money for fare-free BRT was not contingent on any specific outcomes or metrics.
From page 122...
... Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework 4-48 NOT FARE-FREE TRANSIT AGENCIES
From page 123...
... Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework 4-49 KING COUNTY METRO King County, WA Agency Statistics (2019) Agency Type: Large urban regional Urban Area Poverty Rate: 8% Service Area Population: 2.1 million Service Area: 2,134 sq.
From page 124...
... Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework 4-50 FARE-FREE POLICY GOALS  Direct fare subsidies toward riders with the greatest need  Prioritize the mobility needs of people of color, residents with low incomes, limited or non-English speaking communities, and immigrants and refugees  Retain fare revenue and regional cohesion EVALUATION  A randomized control trial pilot that informed the subsidized pass program found that the recipients of a fully subsidized pass more than doubled their transit usage as compared to recipients of a partially subsidized pass, but that they would likely not overwhelm the system, as most additional trips occurred during off-peak hours.  Metro and its research partners are conducting a large-scale impact evaluation of the subsidized pass to inform recommendations for program changes and expansions.
From page 125...
... Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework 4-51 SUN TRAN Tucson, AZ Agency Statistics (2019) Agency Type: Mid-sized regional Urban Area Poverty Rate: 15% Service Area Population: 0.8 million Service Area: 335 sq.
From page 126...
... Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework 4-52 fare-free transit for low-income riders. The later alternative builds on the transit agency's existing low-income fare program that provides half-fares to eligible riders.
From page 127...
... Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework 4-53 THE RAPID Grand Rapids, MI Agency Statistics (2019) Agency Type: Mid-sized regional Urban Area Poverty Rate: 12% Service Area Population: 0.4 million Service Area: 155 sq.
From page 128...
... Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework 4-54  Offer additional mobility options for downtown residents, workers, and visitors EVALUATION  The Rapid did not conduct an evaluation before or after the implementation of fare-free.  More information on homelessness and addiction within the community, as well as a better understanding of the current support services available, would have been useful in the planning process.
From page 129...
... Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework 5-1 5 OPPORTUNITIES FOR FUTURE RESEARCH This final chapter proposes opportunities for future research to support transit practitioners' ability to evaluate fare-free transit. This report provides practical guidance for transit agencies to evaluate the feasibility of farefree transit in their community.
From page 130...
... Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework 5-2 economic impacts of fare-free transit. Additionally, for some of these impacts, positive impacts have been measured internationally, but have not been directly linked to fare-free transit in the US.
From page 131...
... Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework 5-3 FARE COLLECTION COST AND REVENUE REPORTING  Cost of farebox collection in relation to farebox revenue. TCRP Report 93: Fare Policies, Structures and Technologies: Update (2003)
From page 132...
... Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework A-1 Appendix A Transit Agency Survey Methodology and Results Methodology The research team surveyed a sample of United States transit agencies to gather various perspectives on the evaluation of fare-free transit. The sample included agencies are full or partially fare-free, agencies that are considering some form of fare-free transit, and those that are not interested in providing long-term fare-free transit.vii The team developed a list of transit agencies based on the knowledge of the research team members, feedback from the project panel, agencies that were surveyed in TCRP Synthesis 101: Implementation and Outcomes of Fare-Free Transit Systems, and online research on fare-free transit.
From page 133...
... Fare-Free Transit Evaluation Framework A-2 research. To confirm the transit agency contacts and fare-free transit status, our team sent initial emails to transit agency staff with the following message: "Hello [contact name]

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