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Pages 113-126

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From page 113...
... USGCRP (U.S. Global Change Research Program)
From page 114...
... The bidirectional interaction between the virtual and the physical is central to the digital twin. SYSTEMIC, TRANSLATIONAL, AND PROGRAMMATIC FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS  The report emphasizes that a digital twin goes beyond simulation to include tighter integration between models, data, and decisions.
From page 115...
... as essential tasks for the responsible development, implementation, monitoring, and sustainability of digital twins across all domains. Conclusion 2-2: Digital twins require VVUQ to be a continual process that must adapt to changes in the physical counterpart, digital twin virtual models, data, and the prediction/decision task at hand.
From page 116...
... This integrated research agenda includes foundational needs that span multiple domains as well as domain-specific needs.  Recommendation 1: Federal agencies should launch new crosscutting programs, such as those listed below, to advance mathematical, statisti cal, and computational foundations for digital twins. As these new digital twin–focused efforts are created and launched, federal agencies should identify opportunities for cross-agency interactions and facilitate cross community collaborations where fruitful. An interagency working group may be helpful to ensure coordination.
From page 117...
... This vision, in turn, should guide DOE's approach in establishing new crosscutting programs in mathematical, statistical, and computational founda tions for digital twins.  • National Institutes of Health (NIH)
From page 118...
... For example, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the National Institute of Stan dards and Technology, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration should be included in the discussion of digital twin research and development, drawing on their unique missions and extensive capabilities in the areas of data assimilation and real time decision support. VVUQ is a key element of digital twins that necessitates collaborative and interdisciplinary investment.
From page 119...
... Conclusion 7-2: As the foundations of digital twins are established, it is the ideal time to examine the architecture, interfaces, bidirectional workflows of the virtual twin with the physical counterpart, and community prac tices in order to make evolutionary advances that benefit all disciplinary communities. 
From page 120...
... . Conclusion 7-4: Fostering a culture of collaborative exchange of data and models that incorporate context through metadata and provenance in digital twin–relevant disciplines could accelerate progress in the development and application of digital twins.    Recommendation 7: In defining new digital twin research efforts, federal agencies should, in the context of their current and future mission priori ties, (1)
From page 121...
... DIGITAL TWIN RESEARCH FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATION The study identified foundational research needs and opportunities associated with each of the elements of a digital twin: the virtual representation, the physical counterpart, the physical-to-virtual flowpath, and the virtual-to-physical flowpath. These findings, conclusions, and recommendation cover many technical areas, including multiscale, hybrid, and surrogate modeling; system integration and coupling; data acquisition, integration, and interoperability; inverse problems; data assimilation; optimization under uncertainty; automated decision-making; human-in-the-loop decision-making; and human–digital twin interactions.
From page 122...
... Finding 3-4: Advancing mathematical theory and algorithms in both data driven and multiscale physics-based modeling to reduce computational needs for digital twins is an important complement to increased computing resources. Finding 3-5: Hybrid modeling approaches that combine data-driven and mechanistic modeling approaches are a productive path forward for meeting the modeling needs of digital twins, but their effectiveness and practical use are limited by key gaps in theory and methods.  Finding 3-6: Integration of component/subsystem digital twins is a pacing item for the digital twin representation of a complex system, especially if different fidelity models are used in the digital twin representation of its components/subsystems.  Finding 3-7: State-of-the-art literature and practice show advances and suc cesses in surrogate modeling for models that form one discipline or one component of a complex system, but theory and methods for surrogates of coupled multiphysics systems are less mature. 
From page 123...
... of training.  Conclusion 3-2: In order for surrogate modeling methods to be viable and scalable for the complex modeling situations arising in digital twins, the cost of surrogate model training, including the cost of generating the train ing data, must be analyzed and reported when new methods are proposed. Finding 4-1: Documenting data quality and the metadata that reflect the data provenance is critical.  Finding 4-2: The absence of standardized quality assurance frameworks makes it difficult to compare and validate results across different organiza tions and systems.
From page 124...
... The abundance or scarcity of data, complexity of the decision space, need to quantify uncertainty, and need for interpretability are all drivers to be considered in advancing theory and methods for digital twin decision-making.  Conclusion 6-2: Communicating uncertainty to end users is important for digital twin decision support.  Finding 6-5: In addition to providing outputs that are interpretable, digi tal twins need to clearly communicate any updates and the corresponding changes to the VVUQ results to the user in order to engender trust.  Conclusion 6-3: While the capture of enough contextual detail in the meta data is critical for ensuring appropriate inference and interoperability, the inclusion of increasing details may pose emerging privacy and security risks. This aggregation of potentially sensitive and personalized data and models is particularly challenging for digital twins.
From page 125...
... Appendixes


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