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Pages 99-112

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From page 99...
... Bringing complex digital twins to fruition necessitates robust and reliable yet agile and adaptable integration of all these disparate pieces. This chapter discusses crosscutting issues such as evolution and sustainability of the digital twin; translation of digital twin practices between different domains and communities; model and data sharing to advance digital twin methods; and workforce needs and education for digital twin production, maintenance, and use.  EVOLUTION AND SUSTAINABILITY OF A DIGITAL TWIN As described in Chapter 2, digital twins build on decades of computational, mathematical, statistical, and data science research within and across disciplines as diverse as biology, engineering, physics, and geosciences.
From page 100...
... The attributes of the bidirectional workflows supported by the digital twin and the attendant resource provisioning required to support timely and reliable decisions are also key considerations for sustaining the digital twin. These workflows, too, may change over time and circumstance, so both formalism and flexibility are required in the design of the digital twin.  Existing literature and documented practices focus on the creation and deployment of digital twins; little attention has been given to sustainability and 1 For the purposes of this report, the committee defines life cycle as the "overall process of devel oping, implementing, and retiring ...
From page 101...
... These programs should target specific communi ties and provide support to sustain, maintain, and manage the life cycle of digital twins beyond their initial creation, recognizing that sustain ability is critical to realizing the value of upstream investments in the virtual representations that underlie digital twins.    With respect to data, a key sustainability consideration is the adoption of open, domain-specific and extensible, community data standards for use by the digital twin. These standards should also address both data exchange and curation.
From page 102...
... Digital twins will require simulations that can run far faster than real time to simulate what-if scenarios, required fundamental changes in how simulations are designed, deployed, and run. Chapter 3 describes the design and use of surrogate models in order to speed up simulations.
From page 103...
... This blend of domain specificity and commonality can be seen in each of the elements of the digital twin ecosystem. When it comes to the digital twin virtual representation, advancing the models themselves is necessarily domain specific, but advancing the digital twin enablers of hybrid modeling and surrogate modeling embodies shared challenges that crosscut domains.
From page 104...
... Conclusion 7-2: As the foundations of digital twins are established, it is the ideal time to examine the architecture, interfaces, bidirectional workflows of the virtual twin with the physical counterpart, and community prac tices in order to make evolutionary advances that benefit all disciplinary communities.  2 The website for Destination Earth is https://destination-earth.eu, accessed June 13, 2023.
From page 105...
... • National Science Foundation––Directorate for Technology, Inno vation and Partnerships programs.  MODEL AND DATA COLLABORATIONS TO ADVANCE DIGITAL TWIN METHODS  While several major models are used within the international climate research community, there is a history of both sharing and coordination of models. Moreover, there is a history of and consistent commitment to data exchange among this international research community that is beneficial to digital twins.
From page 106...
... The combination of the observing system, data assimilation system, and forward model conforms to the definition of a digital twin insofar as data from the real world are constantly being used to update the model, and the performance of the model is constantly being used to refine the observing system.  With respect to coordination of models, the United States Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) 6 is an interagency body of the federal govern 3 The website for the Global Telecommunication System is https://public.wmo.int/en/programmes/ global-telecommunication-system, accessed September 20, 2023.
From page 107...
... The creation of the human genome demonstrates a successful worldwide cooperative effort that advanced common and ambitious research goals. Another objective in establishing these international interdisciplinary collaborations might be to lay the groundwork for establishing norms and standards for evaluation, protection, and sharing of digital twins.  While there are similar examples of community data sets (e.g., Modified National Institute of Standards and Technology, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, Human Microbiome Project, Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,10 U.S.
From page 108...
... . Conclusion 7-4: Fostering a culture of collaborative exchange of data and models that incorporate context through metadata and provenance in digital twin–relevant disciplines could accelerate progress in the development and application of digital twins.  Recommendation 7: In defining new digital twin research efforts, federal agencies should, in the context of their current and future mission priori ties, (1)
From page 109...
... . Successful workforce training programs for digital twins require a multipronged approach, with new interdisciplinary programs within the academic system (e.g., interdisciplinary degree programs or online certificate programs)
From page 110...
... Two types of training will be required to advance the benefits of and opportunities for digital twins. One type of training focuses on the exploration and development of new capabilities within digital twins, while the other type of training focuses on effective use of digital twins.
From page 111...
... Another example is Code Ocean.15  Faculty play a critical role in identifying, developing, and implementing interdisciplinary programs; their support and engagement is essential. KEY GAPS, NEEDS, AND OPPORTUNITIES In Table 7-1, the committee highlights key gaps, needs, and opportunities for building digital twins that are scalable and sustainable.
From page 112...
... 2022. "The Hitchhiker's Guide to Fused Twins: A Review of Access to Digital Twins In Situ in Smart Cities." Remote Sensing 14(13)


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