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3 Funding and Investment Mechanisms for Infrastructure
Pages 24-34

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From page 24...
... Nock explained that to achieve equity and equality of objectives, multiple stakeholders' and community representatives' viewpoints and values should be represented in the model objective function. Realizing distributional equity and equality of outputs requires understanding how the costs and benefits are shared across society.
From page 25...
... The next step is an environmental sustainability analysis using a reduced complexity air-pollution model, which reveals equality measures of different concentrations of air-pollution emissions across demographic groups and allows for a local environmental sustainability analysis. With the results of the electricity system planning model, one could consider how different investments in large-scale infrastructure translate to community-level impacts.
From page 26...
... Cordes noted that traditionally, economic/social BCA is used for project analysis (estimating social cost of inputs and economic value of outcomes, and calculating social return on investment) , but it can also be used as a social accounting framework (identifying effects on all stakeholders, translating these effects to monetary measures of social benefit or cost, and aggregating to arrive at the "social bottom line")
From page 27...
... Moving from theory to practice, Cordes indicated that BCA is one of several quantitative tools that could enhance the effectiveness of investments in urban sustainability infrastructure. Incorporating the more complex dimensions of urban sustainability into the evaluation of infrastructure projects is challenging -- owing in part to demands on administrative data and for widely accessible yet complex analytical models -- but the development of user-friendly software could be helpful (e.g., menudriven desktop versions of optimization models)
From page 28...
... Pickering indicated that the goal is to replace all lead lines in the system by 2026, although lead service lines are only a small component of the system. Pickering stated that, prior to 2016, data on lead service line locations in Pittsburgh were sparse.
From page 29...
... and geospatially located so that the appropriate water main replacement locations and limits could be identified efficiently. Water main replacement locations were scored and ranked based on criteria of lead and unknown service lines per mile (20 percent model weighting)
From page 30...
... 30 FIGURE 3-1  Darkest shaded neighborhoods are at highest risk and thus are prioritized for lead service line replacement. Areas without shading have already replaced their lines.
From page 31...
... In order for the companies to be successful in their endeavor to revitalize the pharmaceutical manufacturing industry in Petersburg, which requires high-pressure lines to conduct operations, the Poor Creek Pump station would need nearly $37 million in investments for upgrades. Mayor Parham's first step was to reach out to the state and federal governments to pursue grants that would help fund these major improvements.
From page 32...
... Sanders discussed three projects that have emerged from the region via partnership in the past several years. First, because Lake Cities, Texas, did not have the critical broadband infrastructure to serve their communities, these four small towns created a four-way interlocal agreement and request for proposal to maximize resources so that every resident, business, and government building will have a fiber connection.
From page 33...
... He stressed that equity should be an organizational core value instead of just a buzz word, and an outside advocate could help to open lines of communication and to build community trust. Nock explained that increased feedback loops allow people to see how their information is used for decision making and how decisions translate into things they care about.
From page 34...
... Ciccarone explained that Merritt Research Services is creating an academic clearinghouse for universities to access data. Nock explained that utilities would benefit from having a tool that aggregates data on household electricity loads and that giving homeowners data on real-time electricity pricing is meaningless; they are interested in data that show how behavior changes could reduce their bill each month.


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