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1 Introduction
Pages 4-15

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From page 4...
... capable of hosting 20 or more instruments; and 1 "The Use of On-Orbit Assembly Platforms. -- The Committee on Appropriations notes interest from industry in partnering with NASA, to support the development and demonstration of a prototype on-orbit robotically assembled Earth Science Platform designed to address critical gaps in NASA's climate, weather, and ecosystem monitoring. Such a platform could demonstrate a space-based capability for autonomous and simultaneous operation of multiple modular Earth remote sensing instruments that utilizes robotic assembly and on orbit structure manufacturing technologies derived from the On-Orbit Servicing, Assembly, and Manufacturing 2 (OSAM-2)
From page 5...
... The ISS has also served as a host platform for a variety of Earth observing instruments allowing, for example, the study of fundamental characteristics of terrestrial ecosystems. 4 As of December 2022, 2 NASEM, 2018, Thriving on Our Changing Planet.
From page 6...
... ecosystem-related missions hosted on the ISS included ECOSTRESS (Ecosystem Spaceborne Thermal Radiometer Experiment on Space Station) , GEDI 5 (Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation)
From page 7...
... SUN-SYNCHRONOUS AND OTHER ORBITS FOR EARTH OBSERVATIONS FROM SPACE NASA, NOAA, USGS, and U.S. international partners conduct Earth science observations from space utilizing instruments on platforms that are placed in a variety of orbits according to measurement needs.
From page 8...
... There are trade-offs among all these options, many driven by the required temporal and spatial resolution; however, for this report, it is the constraints imposed by use of a single SSO platform with a particular orbital altitude, inclination, and local equator crossing time that are noteworthy. Platforms in LEO comprise a large fraction of the U.S.
From page 9...
... Cawse-Nicholson, et al., 2022, "The Surface Biology and Geology Architecture Study Science and Applications Traceability Matrix (SATM) ," Zenodo, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6325668, and NASA, 2022, "Science and Applications Traceability Matrix -- Surface Biology and Geology," https://sbg.jpl.nasa.gov/satm.
From page 10...
... NASA's Earth Observing System flagship missions, Terra, Aqua, and Aura were placed in SSO, but with differing local mean time equator crossing times to optimize operations of key sensors monitoring Earth's surface, oceans, and atmosphere (Terra, 10:30 am; Aqua, 1:30 pm; and Aura, 1:45 pm) , which allows its Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER)
From page 11...
... While spectral capabilities are defined by the instrument deployed, many aspects of spatial and temporal variation in land surface observations are constrained by the orbital specifics of a platform, so no single platform could satisfy these requirements. For vegetation canopy physiology, a morning and afternoon sampling time would be optimal to capture diurnal patterns; for snow albedo, a sampling time within an hour of solar noon would be optimal to increase accuracy in the high latitudes; and for snow water equivalent, pre dawn measurements are needed.
From page 12...
... 23 NASA is attempting to salvage the science supporting the targeted applications from GeoCarb with existing assets such as the Orbiting Carbon Observatory satellites (OCO-2 in SSO and OCO-3 on the ISS) and the recently launched Earth Venture, EMIT.
From page 13...
... The EV class of missions were created to "conduct low-cost Earth science research and application missions to demonstrate innovative ideas and higher-risk technologies and provide training for future leaders of space-based observations for Earth science applications" (NASEM, 2022, Lessons Learned in the Implementation of NASA's Earth Venture Class, Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, https://doi.org/10.17226/26499)
From page 14...
... X sources and identification of sources and sinks Ice Elevation Global ice characterization including Lidar* elevation change of land ice to assess sea level contributions, surface roughness, and X freeboard height of sea ice to assess sea ice/ocean/atmosphere interaction Ocean Surface Coincident high-accuracy currents and Doppler scatterometer Winds and vector winds to assess air-sea momentum X Currents exchange and to infer upwelling, upper ocean mixing, and sea-ice drift Ozone and Trace Vertical profiles of ozone and trace gases Ultraviolet (UV)
From page 15...
... for PBL height Surface High-resolution global topography Radar; or lidar* Topography and including bare surface land topography ice X Vegetation topography, vegetation structure, and shallow water bathymetry Other ESAS 2017 Targeted Observables, Not Allocated to a Flight Program Element Aquatic Biogeochemistry Radiance Intercalibration Magnetic Field Changes Sea Surface Salinity Ocean Ecosystem Structure Soil Moisture *


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