Skip to main content

Currently Skimming:


Pages 8-29

The Chapter Skim interface presents what we've algorithmically identified as the most significant single chunk of text within every page in the chapter.
Select key terms on the right to highlight them within pages of the chapter.


From page 8...
... 8 Background of Hydrological Modeling and DRRMs Hydrological modeling is an integral part of civil engineering practice. Giere (2004, p.
From page 9...
... Literature Review 9 In such cases, the runoff hydrograph is needed to achieve an adequate design of drainage structures rather than a peak flow. A wider range of hydrologic processes needs to be represented in such models to derive outflow hydrographs, including the following: • Rainfall estimates over time, which are often assumed to be uniform over the watershed area but might vary over time.
From page 10...
... 10 Resilient Design with Distributed Rainfall-Runoff Modeling Based on a model's structure (i.e., how runoff is calculated) , Sitterson et al.
From page 11...
... Literature Review 11 Figure 2. Implementation of a gridded DRRM with a focus on estimating erosion and deposition from hydrological modeling results (Downer and Johnson 2011)
From page 12...
... 12 Resilient Design with Distributed Rainfall-Runoff Modeling • Although not directly related to hydrological processes, DRRMs can, in certain cases, include features that enable the tracking of constituents and pollutants in the water. As indicated, DRRMs have a variety of components that enable physics-based approaches to represent the hydrological behavior of watersheds.
From page 13...
... Literature Review 13 • Most applications of lumped approaches are event based, and the predictions are related to a design rain event of a specific return period or duration (COMET 2006)
From page 14...
... 14 Resilient Design with Distributed Rainfall-Runoff Modeling • U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR)
From page 15...
... Literature Review 15 GSSHA by the USACE GSSHA is a physically based model developed by the USACE through the CHL, which is a part of the Engineering Research and Development Center (ERDC)
From page 16...
... 16 Resilient Design with Distributed Rainfall-Runoff Modeling • Overland 2-D flow routing and channel routing; • Reservoirs/lake storage; • Vadose zone moisture and 2-D averaged lateral groundwater flow; and • Surface water/groundwater interaction and exfiltration. Although GSSHA is publicly available, it does not have a graphic user interface as do other models presented in this synthesis.
From page 17...
... Literature Review 17 Storm Water Management Model by the U.S. EPA The Storm Water Management Model (SWMM)
From page 18...
... 18 Resilient Design with Distributed Rainfall-Runoff Modeling SRH-2D by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation At the time of the development of this synthesis, there is a new DRRM tool undergoing development by the U.S.
From page 19...
... Literature Review 19 mesh cell that represents the watershed. Overland flow is represented either by the 2-D zeroinertia equations (a.k.a.
From page 20...
... 20 Resilient Design with Distributed Rainfall-Runoff Modeling post-processing tools and the implementation of algorithms to represent relevant hydrological processes. These commercial tools have user interfaces that facilitate data entry and undergo frequent improvements and are supported by technical staff in these companies.
From page 21...
... Literature Review 21 State Agency Hydrological Modeling Tools and DRRMs Adopted Sources Excerpts and Comments Alabama Department of Transportation Regression equations, Rational Method, WinTR-20, HEC-HMS, GSSHA ALDOT (2018) "If a higher degree of accuracy is warranted, or if the watershed is large and complex, use computer programs such as NRCS Technical Release 20 (TR-20)
From page 22...
... 22 Resilient Design with Distributed Rainfall-Runoff Modeling Idaho Transportation Department Regression equations, Rational Method, HEC-HMS ITD (2021) "The program HEC-HMS, developed and maintained by the USACE Hydrologic Engineering Center, is a public-domain tool that can be used to perform rainfall-runoff analysis using a variety of methods." Illinois Department of Transportation Regression equations, Rational Method, HEC-HMS, HEC-1, TR-20, WinTR-20 IDOT (2011)
From page 23...
... Literature Review 23 State Agency Hydrological Modeling Tools and DRRMs Adopted Sources Excerpts and Comments Michigan Department of Transportation Regression equations, Rational Method, Michigan Department of Environmental Quality MDEQ-SCS spreadsheet model Michigan DOT (2006) "MDEQ has adapted the SCS method for use in Michigan (for calculation of peak flow only)
From page 24...
... 24 Resilient Design with Distributed Rainfall-Runoff Modeling State Agency Hydrological Modeling Tools and DRRMs Adopted Sources Excerpts and Comments North Carolina Department of Transportation Regression equations, Rational Method, Bentley GEOPAK Drainage, TR-55, TR-20, HEC models Chang (2016) "Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS, formerly Soil Conservation Service)
From page 25...
... Literature Review 25 State Agency Hydrological Modeling Tools and DRRMs Adopted Sources Excerpts and Comments Texas Department of Transportation Regression equations, Rational Method, Hydrograph methods TxDOT (2019) "Watershed subdivision method is also applicable to complex watersheds, in which runoff hydrographs for multiple subbasins are computed, then routed to a common point and combined to yield the total runoff hydrograph at that location.
From page 26...
... 26 Resilient Design with Distributed Rainfall-Runoff Modeling Report title Reference Comments Hydrologic Tool Used Identify and Analyze Inundated Bridge Superstructures in High Velocity Flood Events Ahmari et al.
From page 27...
... Literature Review 27 Report title Reference Comments Hydrologic Tool Used Study of De-icing Salt Accumulation and Transport Through a Watershed Herb et al.
From page 28...
... 28 Resilient Design with Distributed Rainfall-Runoff Modeling Report title Reference Comments Hydrologic Tool Used Monitoring the Effects of Birmingham Northern Beltline Construction in the Little Cahaba Creek Watershed: Final Report Vasconcelos et al.
From page 29...
... Literature Review 29 Report title Reference Comments Hydrologic Tool Used Design Guidance for Low-Water Crossings in Areas of Extreme Bed Mobility Thompson et al.

Key Terms



This material may be derived from roughly machine-read images, and so is provided only to facilitate research.
More information on Chapter Skim is available.