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From page 91...
... 91   A P P E N D I X B Survey Questions and Results 2. What type of hydrological modeling techniques does your agency use for roadway projects?
From page 92...
... 92 Resilient Design with Distributed Rainfall-Runoff Modeling State D is tr ib ut ed ra in fa llru no ff m od el s G ag e da ta a na ly si s to de te rm in e pe ak di sc ha rg es R eg re ss io n eq ua tio ns to de te rm in e de si gn di sc ha rg es R at io na l M et ho d fo r pe ak d is ch ar ge de te rm in at io n O th er North Dakota x x x Ohio x x x Oklahoma x x x x Oregon x x x x Pennsylvania x x x x Puerto Rico x Rhode Island x South Carolina x x x x South Dakota x x x Tennessee x x x Texas x x x x x Utah x Vermont x x Virginia x x x Washington x x x x West Virginia x x x x Wisconsin x x x x Total 16 43 43 41 16 Other reported types of hydrological modeling techniques were NRCS Unit Hydrograph, NRCS SCS Method, TR-55, MGSFlood, FEMA or State Flows, and the slope-area approach for discharge estimates. New Hampshire x x x x New Jersey x x x New Mexico x x x New York x x x x North Carolina x x x x
From page 93...
... Survey Questions and Results 93 3.
From page 94...
... 94 Resilient Design with Distributed Rainfall-Runoff Modeling Other factors/advantages that determine the use of regression equations and/or the Rational Method for hydrological estimates of peak flows reported by DOTs were the recommendations from HEC documents; rainfall distribution data are limited in rural areas; rain-on-snow events are common and easily represented by gage data; regression analysis can be used in areas with no data; DA size is a factor used to determine whether to use regional regression equations or the Rational Method; supporting research, dam rules, and wetland permits for coastal area require added precipitation scenarios, the basin area, and applicability; and the state Hydraulics Manual describes the criteria in selecting a method. Also, one agency reported that in the past, using a rain-on-grid type approach tended to have higher discharge values when compared to regression equations, and because the regression equations were more the standard at the time, it was deemed more economical to stay with those.
From page 95...
... Survey Questions and Results 95 Other DRRMs used for roadway infrastructure projects reported by the state agencies were the WMS, WinTR-20 built into GISHydroWEB, HydroCAD, TR-55, NRCS Model, and a specific distributed rainfall distribution method based on quartiles (probability)
From page 96...
... 96 Resilient Design with Distributed Rainfall-Runoff Modeling 5. What guidance does your agency have for developing/utilizing distributed rainfall-runoff models?
From page 97...
... Survey Questions and Results 97 6. What are factors/advantages that determine the use of distributed rainfall-runoff models by your agency?
From page 98...
... 98 Resilient Design with Distributed Rainfall-Runoff Modeling 7. For what type of applications did the distributed rainfall-runoff models bring improvements in hydrological predictions in your agency?
From page 99...
... Survey Questions and Results 99 8. How many years since your agency has adopted distributed rainfall-runoff modeling techniques?
From page 100...
... 100 Resilient Design with Distributed Rainfall-Runoff Modeling 9. Since the implementation of distributed rainfall-runoff models in your agency, how has the usage of these models changed over time?
From page 101...
... Survey Questions and Results 101 10. What is the minimum drainage area for selecting/utilizing the distributed rainfall-runoff models?
From page 102...
... 102 Resilient Design with Distributed Rainfall-Runoff Modeling 11. What is the maximum drainage area for selecting/utilizing the distributed rainfall-runoff models?
From page 103...
... Survey Questions and Results 103 12. What are the data requirements used to divide the study watershed into small elements by your agency for distributed rainfall-runoff models?
From page 104...
... 104 Resilient Design with Distributed Rainfall-Runoff Modeling 13. What are the rainfall data typically used in distributed rainfall-runoff models by your agency?
From page 105...
... Survey Questions and Results 105 14. What are the sources of rainfall data used in distributed rainfall-runoff modeling by your agency?
From page 106...
... 106 Resilient Design with Distributed Rainfall-Runoff Modeling 15. Which infiltration or rainfall loss models/methods for distributed rainfall-runoff models are used by your agency for roadway infrastructure projects?
From page 107...
... Survey Questions and Results 107 16. Which effective rainfall (a.k.a.
From page 108...
... 108 Resilient Design with Distributed Rainfall-Runoff Modeling 17. Which stream/reservoir routing models/methods for distributed rainfall-runoff models are used by your agency for roadway infrastructure projects?
From page 109...
... Survey Questions and Results 109 18. Which model parameters for distributed rainfall-runoff model sensitivity analysis are used by your agency for roadway infrastructure projects?
From page 110...
... 110 Resilient Design with Distributed Rainfall-Runoff Modeling State A dd ed in te rn al c os ts fo r p er fo rm in g an d/ or tr ai ni ng on d is tr ib ut ed ra in fa llru no ff m od el in g C os t o f e xt er na l c on su lti ng a ss oc ia te d w ith di st ri bu te d ra in fa llru no ff m od el in g A dd ed re si lie nc y of ro ad w ay in fr as tr uc tu re a ga in st ex tr em e hy dr ol og ic al e ve nt s A cc ur at e de si gn to s iz e dr ai na ge s tr uc tu re s to re du ce pr oj ec t c os t Im po rt an ce /c ri tic al ity o f r oa dw ay p ro je ct re qu ir es m or e pr ec is e hy dr ol og ic al s im ul at io ns O th er Arizona x Arkansas x California x x x Colorado x x x Illinois x Kentucky x x x Maine x Maryland x Minnesota x x x x New Jersey x New Mexico x x x North Carolina x x x x Puerto Rico x x South Carolina x Texas x West Virginia x x Total 2 2 5 9 9 5 Other components/metrics reported by DOTs when assessing the cost and benefits of using distributed rainfall-runoff modeling techniques were the following: the use of an automated hydrology system called GISHydroNXT/WEB; DRRM in some situations is the only alternative to effectively answer flood vulnerabilities; the infrastructure investment value is a factor analysis to implement DRRMs, the level of hydraulic design needed, and the use of DRRM when full hydrographs and storage are needed.
From page 111...
... Survey Questions and Results 111 20. What are barriers for your agency to implement/use distributed rainfall-runoff models?
From page 113...
... Abbreviations and acronyms used without denitions in TRB publications: A4A Airlines for America AAAE American Association of Airport Executives AASHO American Association of State Highway Officials AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials ACI–NA Airports Council International–North America ACRP Airport Cooperative Research Program ADA Americans with Disabilities Act APTA American Public Transportation Association ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials ATA American Trucking Associations CTAA Community Transportation Association of America CTBSSP Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program DHS Department of Homeland Security DOE Department of Energy EPA Environmental Protection Agency FAA Federal Aviation Administration FAST Fixing America's Surface Transportation Act (2015) FHWA Federal Highway Administration FMCSA Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration FRA Federal Railroad Administration FTA Federal Transit Administration GHSA Governors Highway Safety Association HMCRP Hazardous Materials Cooperative Research Program IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ISTEA Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 ITE Institute of Transportation Engineers MAP-21 Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (2012)
From page 114...
... Transportation Research Board 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 ADDRESS SERVICE REQUESTED ISBN 978-0-309-69861-0 9 7 8 0 3 0 9 6 9 8 6 1 0 9 0 0 0 0

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