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2 The Dual Challenge for RCR: Minds and Systems
Pages 5-8

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From page 5...
... The reality, however, is that authoring research papers and grants is how a researcher maintains and thrives in their career, and those activities are not necessarily reinforced by the same behaviors in that positive results and novel findings are more publishable and more likely to secure funding than negative results and replicating prior findings. In other words, incentives for individual success are focused on getting published, not responsible research conduct (Nosek et al.
From page 6...
... One approach to reducing motivated reasoning is preregistration, a process in which the researcher states in advance the study's goals and hypotheses, including what the researcher expected to find. At the conclusion of the research, they explain what they discovered, and even for an exploratory study in a new research topic, making hypotheses explicit prior to conducting the research can then help calibrate confidence in findings the researcher reports after the fact.
From page 7...
... This attitude incentivizes researchers to write papers as if they had a theoretical context in mind to explain the results, which dresses up exploratory research as a confirmatory finding. David Allison (Indiana University Bloomington School of Public Health)

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