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Literature Review (Task 3)
Pages 48-76

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From page 48...
... , the research team conducted a literature review that focused on behavioral interventions in a rural environment. The objective of this review was to identify and describe evaluation studies of prevention and intervention programs that have a behavioral approach to reducing rural roadway traffic injuries.
From page 49...
... . Because all road users, regardless of their mode or location, should make it to their destination safely, transportation practitioners have created goals and initiatives aimed at reducing fatalities and serious injuries to zero.
From page 50...
... . In addition to changing how the transportation sector approaches human behaviors and errors through the Safe System Approach, the zero fatalities initiatives also support growing traffic safety culture.
From page 51...
... . Rural Transportation Safety There are more than four million miles of roads in the U.S., and rural roads comprise 70% of them.
From page 52...
... . Rural Roadway Characteristics Rural roadways have characteristics that are different from their urban counterparts.
From page 53...
... Moreover, rural road users may require behavioral countermeasures guided by local cultural factors in order to be more effective. Safe road users are another part of the equation to achieve zero fatalities, therefore, additional information about rural behaviors and culture is examined in the Rural Roadway Risk and Protective Factors section.
From page 54...
... However, lack of communication infrastructure, the public's perception of these technologies, and legislation related to their use will also be a barrier for these options. Behavioral interventions for rural areas are not a "one size fits all." The interventions must fit within the social and cultural differences of the rural community types and differences in road design characteristics as indicated in the rural road safety classification created in Task 1.
From page 55...
... Considerable data to document the incidence of crashes and crash mechanisms for rural roadways exist. State crash data usually include a rural indicator, although states define rural roadways using different definitions (see Task 2)
From page 56...
... While little research has examined differences in behavior and traffic safety culture by rurality, existing studies indicate that rural residents are less likely than urban residents to wear seat belts or to use child safety seats (Zwerling et al., 2001; Baker et al., 2000; Lundell, 2003; Rakauskas, et al., 2009) and they are more likely to have positive blood alcohol tests in crashes (Blatt and Furman, 1998)
From page 57...
... These factors include social and cultural norms, including the political safety culture. Other large societal factors include the health, economic, educational, and social policies that reduce economic or social inequalities between groups in society (CDC, 2009)
From page 58...
... of the studies evaluated educational interventions, and these focused on ATV safety (n = 2) , novice drivers including rural roadway driving (n=3)
From page 59...
... and lane control. Simulation studies were also used for vehicle design studies to examine driving in low visibility and to study distraction on rural roads based on size of a Global Positioning System (GPS)
From page 60...
... Approaches to control speeding focused on high-risk rural roadways, rural roadways with curves, speed limits, and general speed. The most common approach to control speed was through roadway design.
From page 61...
... • Goldenbeld et al., 2005 evaluated a rural speed enforcement program and found that average speeds on roads decreased significantly in intersection areas, with some spillover impact on local roads. • Vadeby et al., 2014 evaluated rural roadway speed limit reductions and found that fatalities decreased but no significant difference in severe injury crashes was found.
From page 62...
... • Peek-Asa et al., 2014, evaluated a parent-based educational intervention for novice drivers that included rural roadway components and found that self-reported risky driving was reduced, and that the rural roadway component indicated the highest parent communication increase among 26 topics. • Peek-Asa et al., 2019, evaluated a parent-based educational intervention in augmenting the impact of in-vehicle video warning systems among mostly rural drivers and found that the parent-based
From page 63...
... ATV safety is a particular focus for rural populations because ATVs are so prevalent for farm use, transportation, and recreation. ATV safety interventions mostly focused on children and had mixed results about effectiveness.
From page 64...
... General rural driving safety interventions included one campaign, one policy, and one educational approach. • Goodrow et al., 2004, evaluated a community campaign to increase safety on a rural road segment in Appalachia.
From page 65...
... require multiple studies of different designs and population before a prevention approach can be recommended. Study Designs and Quality of Studies The quality of evaluation studies focused on behavioral interventions that reduce crash incidence and injury on rural roads and for rural drivers was weak.
From page 66...
... For example, despite the fact that all studies involved rural interventions, no simulation studies mentioned recruiting participants based on rural roadway experience, measured rural roadway experience, or controlled for it. While the overall quality of the studies was relatively weak compared with the general evidence base for health-related studies, a far more important gap is the rarity with which rural, behavioral-focused interventions are evaluated at all.
From page 67...
... In these states, the most recent SHSP was reviewed to identify any specific rural content. Vision Zero Website Review Methods For each relevant website or highway plan, the research team searched the content to collect information on any reference to rural roads, populations, or specific strategies with the goal of determining if those areas and roads were the focus of any states' Vision Zero plans.
From page 68...
... ; 3) Is rural roadway safety mentioned in any way on the website or in the SHSP?
From page 69...
... Therefore, rural roads and areas did not seem to be a significant priority to these Vision Zero websites even though many of the behavioral strategies emphasized are important in rural areas. The review of the SHSPs for the states with no website (yellow color)
From page 70...
... Behavioral strategies, both educational programs and campaigns, are in particular not a "one size fits all" intervention approach, and these may need regional variation and message segmentation to be effective. A number of trends in rural populations are important when considering how to best develop, implement, evaluate, disseminate, and translate rural-focused traffic safety interventions.
From page 71...
... In mountainous rural areas, roadways have much more curvature and sinuosity than city roads. • Rural roads have bigger roadway diversity, which includes high-risk configurations such as uncontrolled intersections and highways with intersection-like crossings.
From page 72...
... Engaging multiple entities, which may have a good history of working together or not, presents a challenge to rural roadway safety. • Delivering programs in rural environments poses challenges in timing, location, and transportation, as well as engagement across populations and sectors (Novak, et al., 2013)
From page 73...
... Risks Specific for Rural Road Users With significantly more activity in urban than rural road safety research, it might make sense to begin advancing rural roadway safety by translating successful urban programs to rural environments. However, rural populations and environments have a number of unique factors that require approaches to be considered independently from those used in urban areas.
From page 74...
... • Police crash reports are likely to have higher variability since multiple jurisdictions have patrol authority over different roads. While reports from a single jurisdiction, such as an incorporated city, are likely to have more internal consistency, rural roadways have a higher number of jurisdictions covering any roadway, and also have integrated response from police and sheriff's offices (Golembiewski and Chandler, 2011)
From page 75...
... • Barriers to implementing behavioral rural traffic safety interventions must be considered including geospatial, engagement, infrastructure, resource, rural specific risk, cultural, and rural data barriers. • Future interventions for rural populations must consider growing diversity in race/ethnicity; a wide range and increasing disparity in income and education; and an aging population.
From page 76...
... . • Evaluation of the rural road safety education programs from a wide variety of agencies (e.g., schools to youth organizations to state DOT)


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