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4 Overview of Interventions Identified in the Scoping Review
Pages 67-112

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From page 67...
... , the scoping review was limited to U.S.-specific contexts and interventions occurring within health care systems, early care and education (ECE) settings, and university cooperative extension (CE)
From page 68...
... As shown in Table 4-2, most studies used live and/or remote-tech noninteractive modalities. Outcomes of Interest The scoping review focused on outcomes related to what to feed, how to feed, and related health outcomes, such as obesity prevention, in infants and young children.
From page 69...
... i Cloutier et al., 2018; Taylor et al., 2017. j Cloutier et al., 2018; Fangupo et al., 2015; Hernandez et al., 2022; Hohman et al., 2017, 2020; LoRe et al., 2019; Morison et al., 2018; Rosenstock et al., 2021; Savage et al., 2018; Tussing-Humphreys et al., 2019; Van Vliet et al., 2022; Watt et al., 2009; Wen et al., 2011; Williams Erickson et al., 2018.
From page 70...
... This outcome was the most prevalent in the health care and WIC settings. About half of the included publications in the home visiting setting were focused on obesity prevention, whereas the ECE setting studies were mainly focused on improving infant feeding behaviors (only one of five was focused on obesity prevention)
From page 71...
... j Cloutier et al., 2018; Fangupo et al., 2015; Hernandez et al., 2022; Hohman et al., 2017, 2020; LoRe et al., 2019; Morison et al., 2018; Remy et al., 2013; Rosenstock et al., 2021; Savage et al., 2016; Van Vliet et al., 2022. k Gibby et al., 2019; Macchi et al., 2022; Palacios et al., 2018.
From page 72...
... n Cloutier et al., 2018; Fangupo et al., 2015; Harris et al., 2020; Hernandez et al., 2022; Hohman et al., 2017, 2020; LoRe et al., 2019; Morison et al., 2018; Rosenstock et al., 2021; Taylor et al., 2017; Van Vliet et al., 2022; Watt et al., 2009; Wen et al., 2011; Williams Erickson et al., 2018.
From page 73...
... NOTE: WIC = Special, Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children.
From page 74...
... reduce obesity: cluster-randomized controlled trial follow-up Spence et al. Mediators of improved child diet quality (2014)
From page 75...
... protective infant feeding practices to prevent childhood obesity: Outcomes of the NOURISH RCT at 14 months of age and 6 months post the first of two intervention modules Growing Leaps Schroeder et al. Early obesity prevention: A randomized trial of a and Bounds (2015)
From page 76...
... . These publications contained the results from 16 studies, all but three of which were randomized controlled trials (RCTs)
From page 77...
... . Intervention and Study Goals2 The included studies were generally intended to identify effective strategies to improve diet quality and promote healthy eating behavior in the first 2 years of life.
From page 78...
... Table 4-8 describes what to feed and how to feed topics that were addressed in health care sector studies include in the scoping review. As noted in the table, multiple stud TABLE 4-8 What/How to Feed Topics Addressed in Included Health Care Studies What to Feed Number of Studies (references to associated Topics Addressed publications)
From page 79...
... 5s Parental monitoring of healthy dietary intake 2t Parental role in the modeling of healthy food intake 1u Repeated exposure to healthy foods 1v Cup introduction 2w a Cameron et al., 2014; Campbell et al., 2013; Dodd et al., 2014, 2018; Fildes et al., 2015; French et al., 2012; Hesketh et al., 2020; Spence et al., 2013, 2014; Zheng et al., 2022. b Cameron et al., 2014; Campbell et al., 2013; Fiks et al., 2017; French et al., 2012; Hesketh et al., 2020; Maguire et al., 2010; Morandi et al., 2019; Schroeder et al., 2015; Spence et al., 2013, 2014; van Grieken et al., 2017; Vlasblom et al., 2020; Zheng et al., 2022.
From page 80...
... of the studies identified within the health care setting did not report a theoretical framework. Descriptions of the
From page 81...
... . Questionnaires without previous validation were also used including instruments assessing child dietary intake (INFANT; LIMIT; BBOFT; First Steps for Mommy and Me; Growing Leaps and Bounds; PROBIT; Starting Early Program)
From page 82...
... Infant Feeding Practices Study II Questionnaire (11) Infant Feeding Style Questionnaire (9, 11)
From page 83...
... . Among the 11 studies reporting outcomes on how to feed, seven reported on interventions designed to improve responsive feeding behaviors (NOURISH; Grow2Gether; Starting Early Program; PROBIT; First Steps for Mommy and Me; French et al., 2012; Globus et al., 2019)
From page 84...
... . Early Care and Education The committee reviewed interventions occurring within ECE settings (including child care centers or nurseries)
From page 85...
... Assessing an infant feeding website as a nutrition (2009) education tool for child care providers Study Population The two studies that targeted child vegetable consumption were conducted in the United Kingdom and their study populations included young children of diverse ages: 108 children ages 9‒38 months (Caton et al., 2013)
From page 86...
... The U.S. study used a quasi-experimental pre- and post- design with the goal of assessing access to an educational website on child care providers' infant feeding knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors (Clark et al., 2009)
From page 87...
... . Key Findings and Implications Repeated exposure to novel vegetables while attending child care can be effective in helping young children learn to like eating vegetables -- at least over a relatively short period of time (e.g., several months)
From page 88...
... Parental feeding self-efficacy TABLE 4-12 Included Studies and Publications Within the University Cooperative Extension Setting Study Name Publications Publication Title NEAT Horodynski and Nutrition Education Aimed at Toddlers: (Nutrition Education Stommel (2005) An intervention study Aimed at Toddlers)
From page 89...
... The studies are important because of their primary focus on modalities that may be instrumental in supporting behavior change related to complementary feeding, namely interactive texting, and the distribution of video content to be viewed in the home. Study Population5 One study (three publications)
From page 90...
... . The second study described the impact of an educational English/ Spanish infant feeding video, distributed for home viewing at one WIC center in New York City, on encouraging breastfeeding, delaying the introduction of complementary foods until 6 months of age, and increasing maternal knowledge of appropriate infant feeding practices (Scheinmann et al., 2010)
From page 91...
... . The other study used infant feeding knowledge and behavior surveys adapted from the Bright Futures Nutrition series (Story et al., 2002)
From page 92...
... (2019) Early Childhood Obesity Prevention Program Cloutier et al.
From page 93...
... standard parents as teacher curriculum on factors related to infant feeding among African American women Parent-directed intervention in promoting knowledge of pediatric nutrition and healthy lifestyle among low-SES families with toddlers: A randomized controlled trial Outcomes of an early childhood obesity prevention program in a low-income community: A pilot, randomized trial Impact of a modified version of baby-led weaning on dietary variety and food preferences in infants Impact of a modified version of baby-led weaning on infant food and nutrient intakes: The BLISS randomized controlled trial Effect of a baby-led approach to complementary feeding on infant growth and overweight: A randomized clinical trial Impact of an early-life intervention on the nutrition behaviors of 2-year-old children: A randomized controlled trial Repeated exposure of infants at complementary feeding to a vegetable puŕee increases acceptance as effectively as flavor–flavor learning and more effectively than flavor–nutrient learning Effectiveness of an early intervention on infant feeding practices and "tummy time" Effectiveness of a social support intervention on infant feeding practices: Randomized controlled trial
From page 94...
... The interventions were delivered by trained home visitors (Early Childhood Obesity Prevention Program) , paraprofessionals (Family Spirit Nurture)
From page 95...
... . The duration of the visits was infrequently reported but ranged from 45 to 120 minutes when specified (Early Childhood Obesity Prevention Program; Sleep SAAF; Family Spirit Nurture; Delta Healthy Sprouts)
From page 96...
... . Key Findings and Implications Among the outcomes examined, caregivers' self-reported use of responsive feeding practices (Fangupo et al., 2015; Harris et al., 2020; Hernandez et al., 2022; Rosenstock et al., 2021; Savage et al., 2018; Van Vliet et al., 2022; Wen et al., 2011)
From page 97...
... : the Family Spirit Nurture and INSIGHT trials. Other Settings The committee also reviewed interventions occurring in settings other than health care, ECE, CE, WIC, or home visiting.
From page 98...
... Examining the effects of an eHealth intervention from (2019a) infant age 6 to 12 months on child eating behaviors and maternal feeding practices 1 year after cessation: The Norwegian randomized controlled trial Early Food for Future Health
From page 99...
... (2019) ingredients combined with systematic introduction of taste portions increase intake of fruits and vegetables in 9-month-old infants: A randomized controlled trial -- Owen et al.
From page 100...
... TABLE 4-17 Number of Publications Within Each Study Category Number of Publications Category Number of Studies (references) Repeated exposure of infants to new foods 15 17a Counter-marketing messages on unhealthy beverages targeting parents of young children 1 1b Comprehensive nutritional interventions delivered to parents virtually 7 10c SOURCE: a Barends et al., 2013, 2014; Beinert et al., 2017; Coulthard et al., 2014; Forestell and Men nella, 2007; Hetherington et al., 2015; Johansson et al., 2019; Johnson et al., 2021; Kalhoff et al., 2021; Krebs et al., 2006; Maier et al., 2008; Mennella et al., 2008, 2017; Øverby et al., 2017; Owen et al., 2018; Rapson et al., 2022; Tournier et al., 2021.
From page 101...
... Intervention and Study Goals Repeated Exposure Studies The goals of most of the studies that targeted repeated exposure to new foods when introducing solids were to enable children to develop taste preferences for and eat more vegetables (Barends et al., 2013, 2014; Beinert et al., 2017; Coulthard et al., 2014; Forestell and Mennella, 2007; Hetherington et al., 2015; Johansson et al., 2019; Johnson et al., 2021; Kalhoff et al., 2021; Maier et al., 2008; Mennella et al., 2008, 2017; Øverby et al., 2017; Owen et al., 2018; Rapson et al., 2022)
From page 102...
... Marketing Message Study The goal of the RCT by Harris et al.
From page 103...
... (2020) tested the impact of informational booklets mailed to mothers coupled with either nurse-led telephone or text messages on infant feeding practices, tummy time, and screen time while infants were 1–10 months old.
From page 104...
... . Tools and Outcomes Repeated Exposure Studies Most repeated exposure studies compared the weight of the novel foods consumed (Barends et al., 2013, 2014; Forestell and Mennella, 2007; Hetherington et al., 2015; Kalhoff et al., 2021; Maier et al., 2008; Mennella et al., 2008; Rapson et al., 2022)
From page 105...
... may provide one model for a web-based intervention that shows promise of impacting what to feed and how to feed behaviors. SUMMARY This chapter described key features of the 58 studies from 83 publications identified by the committee during the scoping review.
From page 106...
... Caregiver what to feed outcomes included increasing the provision of nutrient-dense foods and beverages, increasing the variety of foods, and reducing the provision of foods with added sugars, salt, and saturated and trans fats, while child outcomes related to consuming a high-quality diet with appropriate amounts and variety of nutrient-dense foods and beverages. Studies addressing how to feed outcomes largely addressed caregivers using responsive feeding practices and repeated exposures to unfamiliar foods.
From page 107...
... 2012. Evaluation of an intervention to promote protective infant feeding practices to prevent childhood obesity: Outcomes of the NOURISH RCT at 14 months of age and 6 months post the first of two intervention modules.
From page 108...
... 2019b. Examining the effects of an eHealth intervention from infant age 6 to 12 months on child eating behaviors and ma ternal feeding practices one year after cessation: The Norwegian randomized controlled trial Early Food for Future Health.
From page 109...
... 2019. Parent-directed intervention in promoting knowledge of pediatric nutrition and healthy lifestyle among low-SES families with toddlers: A randomized controlled trial.
From page 110...
... on infant feeding practices and weight gain in low-income minorities. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 37(7)
From page 111...
... 2018. IN SIGHT responsive parenting intervention and infant feeding practices: Randomized clinical trial.
From page 112...
... 2009. Effectiveness of a social support intervention on infant feeding practices: Randomised controlled trial.


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