Skip to main content

Currently Skimming:

4 Social, Ethical, and Legal Considerations Raised by IVG
Pages 51-66

The Chapter Skim interface presents what we've algorithmically identified as the most significant single chunk of text within every page in the chapter.
Select key terms on the right to highlight them within pages of the chapter.


From page 51...
... • IVG could enable those experiencing medical or social in fertility to conceive a genetically related child. However, at tention needs to be paid to its implications in the context of reproductive health care, including the broader policies affecting family-building choices, the experiences of people with disabilities, the potential to emphasize genetic related ness as an ideal type of family formation, and the geographic, socioeconomic, racial, and other inequities in who does or does not have access to reproductive autonomy.
From page 52...
... The panelists included Michele ­Goodwin of the University of California, Irvine, a legal expert in health law, novel biotechnologies, reproductive rights, and racial disparities with sociological and anthropological training; Alana Cattapan of the University of Waterloo, Canada, a frontline researcher examining the governance of assisted human reproduction and reproductive biopolitics through a feminist lens; Sonia Suter of George Washington University, a legal expert on genetics and ART with training as a genetic counselor; and Henry (Hank) Greely of Stanford ­University, a law professor who studies ethical, legal, and social implications of emerging biomedical technologies.
From page 53...
... Society has invested ­heavily in helping people conceive children via IVF, and Greely argued that it seems unjust not to invest similarly to assist those who cannot be served by traditional ART. Medical Versus Social Infertility If ever available clinically, IVG could enable those experiencing medical or social infertility2 to conceive a genetically related child.
From page 54...
... Cattapan outlined social and economic interventions, including parental leave, funded child care, and reduced student loans, that might be more effective investments "if there is a desire to help people have children." Suter agreed, noting that "law [shapes] our desires in many ways." Greely acknowledged that improved parental leave and child care could affect the age at which people desire children.
From page 55...
... Many speculate whether it would have been introduced in the United States if it were subjected to the current regulatory hurdles placed on novel ART. Glenn Cohen asked the panelists to reflect on comparisons between IVF and IVG from a regulatory perspective.
From page 56...
... Even with appropriate education and counseling for prospective parents, Suter expressed concerns that desperate individuals could act rashly and accept worrying unknowns in the hope of having genetically related children. In addition to initial consent, clinical trials for IVG would necessitate plans for long-term follow-up of the conceived child and potentially their future children.
From page 57...
... Regulating Embryo Selection A virtual participant asked panelists to reflect on the ethics of state involvement in regulating and setting limits on embryo selection. 7 According to Amato and others, the utility and validity of polygenic risk screening are unclear.
From page 58...
... Ultimately, different prospective parents and societies will make different choices on how to approach embryo selection, as they already do for embryos created by other ARTs, Greely said. Embryo selection affects the disability community.9 Greely said, "To the extent that parental selection is allowed … many parents will select against having children with disabilities, and that has effects on people with disabilities."10 Permitting embryo selection against disabilities can feel like a societally sanctioned statement that such lives are less worth living, he continued, noting the immense psychological toll this can have on individuals with disabilities.
From page 59...
... She noted that it is possible that these feelings could change if IVG were available for clinical use due to decreased physiological and time investments by prospective parents to create embryos. However, she speculated that it is more likely that people will continue to have complicated feelings about embryo disposition no matter how many are in storage.
From page 60...
... Greely and Cattapan both discussed reproductive inequities relat ing to socioeconomic status. Greely identified low socioeconomic status as "the most important and most shameful of the social infertilities we have in the U.S." He cited Judith Daar's book The New Eugenics, where she argues that structural barriers disproportionately prevent people with low socioeconomic status from having babies.
From page 61...
... The participant asked panelists to reflect on this notion and the commitment to advancing IVG and other reproductive technologies through a reproductive justice framework. Suter and Cattapan both agreed that conversations need to be had concerning the potential roles the government simultaneously plays in contributing to infertility through societal structures and reifying genetic connection.
From page 62...
... Rather than seeking to develop eggs or sperm from stem cells, they study basic issues around mammalian gamete formation and reproductive biology, including meiosis, epigenetics, germline mutations, and tissue environment. This knowledge is needed to make progress in developing and validating IVG but can also address other questions.
From page 63...
... Goodwin identified the potential for IVG biotourism as a major ethical concern, including whether prospective parents might travel to clinics in countries with less stringent regulatory oversight and availability of IVG might increase the use of gestational surrogates from the Global South.15 She reflected on the long-standing tradition of the West using neocolonialism to export its demands, including reproductive needs, which "we are still struggling to address." The remaining panelists raised several additional points. Greely and Suter both identified the health of any babies born from IVG as a universal issue for any country that considers permitting it for reproductive use.
From page 64...
... Several participants felt that mandatory reporting would be impractical and un­enforceable, emphasizing that participation needs to be voluntary. Kraschel noted that individuals from historically marginalized groups would be rightfully suspicious of formats such as national registries, and she worried that this would further ostracize them from fertility care were IVG ever to be available clinically.
From page 65...
... She said that this serves as a framework for developing norms around responsible practices in IVG and that scientists are not going to suddenly generate 20-fold more human embryos. In response, Kraschel noted that the participants in her breakout group were particularly concerned about IVG's potential to facilitate mass creation of embryos for polygenic risk screening.
From page 66...
... 66 IN VITRO–DERIVED HUMAN GAMETES Clark concluded by suggesting that the number of embryos generated as a result of IVG be regulated, potentially at a similar volume as IVF. Assays to screen for gamete quality, followed by using only selected gametes to create resulting embryos, would assist with this goal, she said.


This material may be derived from roughly machine-read images, and so is provided only to facilitate research.
More information on Chapter Skim is available.