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5 Exposure to Indoor PM
Pages 109-138

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From page 109...
... SCOPE AND INTRODUCTION Indoor exposure to airborne particles occurs when humans inhale the air in their homes, schools, and other built environments or come into contact with the particles by other routes. Exposure may be thought of as the time-integrated airborne concentration experienced at the point of contact between humans and particles.
From page 110...
... Because people are indoors most of the time, being able to characterize indoor exposure is important not only to understand health impacts from indoor particle sources, but also for understanding the health impacts from indoor exposure to fine PM of outdoor origin (Morawska et al., 2013)
From page 111...
... A careful treatment of timescales is particularly important for the intermittent sources described in Chapter 3, which result in highly variable indoor exposures. Tapered element oscillating microbalances and beta attenuation instruments (Lowther et al., 2019)
From page 112...
... Many species are present in a wide range of particle sizes, extending beyond the 2.5micrometer diameter cut-off for fine particles, making it hard to determine to what extent a composition-specific measure such as the amount of black carbon, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, metals, allergens, or flame retardants, or the infectious agent load, are fine particle measures in any given context. The link to fine particle exposure is even harder to predict for attributes such as oxidative potential or reactive oxygen species that are related to particles and gases in an air sample.
From page 113...
... Implementation on urban, building, and personal scales has generated unprecedented amounts of data that can be integrated to develop more accurate personal exposure models at scale (Pantelic et al., 2022)
From page 114...
... Exposure Assessment Approaches Direct Measurement Personal monitoring via wearable or "point-of-contact" (EPA, 2015) sensors is considered the gold standard for exposure assessment.
From page 115...
... (2022) measured personal exposures to black carbon and applied time-activity diaries to attribute the fractional contribution from transportation versus home-based activities on weekends versus weekdays, while Milà et al.
From page 116...
... In studying indoor exposures, the population characteristics, the practicality of collecting biological samples, seasonal variations in exposure, the nature (e.g., composition) of PM, and background comparison ranges all need consideration.
From page 117...
... Examples of population-surveys from different geographies are the National Human Activity Pattern Survey (Klepeis et al., 2001; Zhang and Batterman, 2009) , the Canadian Human Activity Pattern Survey (Leech and Smith-Doiron, 2006)
From page 118...
... for the study of the movement and interaction of people in offices, finding that just over a week of data collection was sufficient for characterizing typical movement behaviors in these settings. While the committee is not aware of similar IPS efforts in residences or schools, a feasibility study demonstrated that networks of motion sensors could be useful for characterizing in-home human behavior and associated impacts on indoor air quality (Lin et al., 2017)
From page 119...
... PM exposures in schools are shaped by indoor emissions and resuspension caused by occupant activities and the effect of ventilation and surface sinks. School proximity to traffic has been identified as a crucial factor affecting indoor exposure.
From page 120...
... , and together they influence the particle size and composition of indoor PM. Time activities of humans and their behaviors can affect the intake and deposition of fine particles in the lung, and human susceptibility will determine the health risks resulting from indoor exposure (see Chapter 6)
From page 121...
... . Housing and occupant factors can further exacerbate such disparities in terms of indoor exposure.
From page 122...
... , which evaluated indoor air quality in four nursing homes in Ohio. In 2022, there was a relevant study published using wildfire smoke exposure measurements at four skilled nursing facilities in the western United States (Montrose et al., 2022)
From page 123...
... The role of exposure assessment to raise awareness on the importance of indoor PM to health is also discussed. Disparities in Indoor Exposure to Fine PM of Outdoor Origin While there are examples of epidemiological studies of outdoor fine PM considering building factors as modifiers (Allen et al., 2012; Breen et al., 2014; Hodas et al., 2012; Hystad et al., 2009)
From page 124...
... , than with outdoor particles or black carbon. Studies that are designed to understand the health impacts from indoor fine PM have consistently found that indoor exposures are often higher and more variable than outdoor exposures.
From page 125...
... Disparities exist in population exposure to indoor fine particulate matter of both outdoor and indoor origin. Disparities occur not only because of higher indoor exposure concentrations due to more activities happening in smaller, densely occupied, and interconnected (multi-family)
From page 126...
... Studies point to a need for innovation to improve measurement techniques and study methods to enable better characterization of the total exposure and health impacts to fine particles in indoor environments. Conclusions A national effort to measure and report indoor exposure to PM using validated methods and sufficient characterization of the built environment, occupancy, and activity patterns is needed to identify critical determinants of indoor exposure to fine particles (and other indoor air pollutants)
From page 127...
... 2015. Indoor air quality, ventilation and respiratory health in elderly residents living in nursing homes in Europe.
From page 128...
... 2022. Can data reliability of low-cost sensor devices for indoor air particulate matter monitoring be improved?
From page 129...
... 2021. Performance assessment of low-cost environmental monitors and single sensors under variable indoor air quality and thermal conditions.
From page 130...
... 2009. Modeling residential fine particulate matter infiltration for exposure assessment.
From page 131...
... 2022. Indoor air quality impacts of residential mechanical ventilation system retrofits in existing homes in Chicago, IL.
From page 132...
... 2015. Effect of time-activity adjustment on exposure assessment for traffic-related ultrafine particles.
From page 133...
... 2022. Outdoor and indoor fine particulate matter at skilled nursing facilities in the western United States during wildfire and non‐wildfire seasons.
From page 134...
... 2022. Indoor exposure to fine particulate matter and practical mitigation approaches: Proceedings of a workshop.
From page 135...
... 2021. Adequate indoor air quality in nursing homes: An unmet medical need.
From page 136...
... 2017. Evaluation of indoor air quality in four nursing home facilities in northwest Ohio.
From page 137...
... 2021. Indoor air quality issues for Rocky Mountain West tribes.
From page 138...
... 2021. Indoor air quality in new and renovated low-income apartments with mechanical ventilation and natural gas cooking in California.


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