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From page 5...
... 5   Overview of LS-DYNA Modeling Practices LS-DYNA (4) was used to create models of railing and overhang specimens for the analytical program.
From page 6...
... 6 MASH Railing Load Requirements for Bridge Deck Overhang A notable limitation of modeling reinforcement using CBIS is its neglect of the eects of bar development length. As beam elements are essentially locked into the surrounding concrete matrix, bars are able to reach their yield stress over very short embedment lengths.
From page 7...
... Overview of LS-DYNA Modeling Practices 7   Material Properties Both nominal and as-tested material properties were used in LS-DYNA models depending on the objective of the model. For models that were created to represent a physical test for accuracy evaluations, as-tested material properties were used, and steel strain hardening was included.
From page 8...
... 8 MASH Railing Load Requirements for Bridge Deck Overhang slight modifications were applied to both the CSC and K&C models to produce better agreement with physical test results. For the CSC model, tensile and shear fracture energies were reduced relative to the compressive fracture energy; for the K&C model, the shear dilation factor and tensile damage evolution coefficient were modified.
From page 9...
... Overview of LS-DYNA Modeling Practices 9   75.0 kips 71.9 kips Figure 5. TxDOT T501 test B comparison (K&C concrete model)
From page 10...
... 10 MASH Railing Load Requirements for Bridge Deck Overhang 40.0 kips 41.6 kips 41.6 kips 40.0 kips Figure 8. TxDOT T501 end-region test C results (CSC concrete model)
From page 11...
... Overview of LS-DYNA Modeling Practices 11   No modifications were applied to the K&C model following the concrete-post modeling exercise. However, it was found that the accuracy of the model was significantly improved by reducing the mesh size.
From page 12...
... 12 MASH Railing Load Requirements for Bridge Deck Overhang It was found that reducing the K&C model's localization width, which controls the relationship between mesh size and fracture energy, resulted in a significantly improved model response. The K&C user's manual recommends that the localization width be set at three times the maximum aggregate diameter, which was 2.25 in.

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