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Currently Skimming:

6 Specialized and Targeted Curricula and Practices for Supporting Children with Disabilities
Pages 215-243

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From page 215...
... This is especially true for children facing multiple risk factors. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
From page 216...
... This continuum of services is designed to meet the identified individualized needs of children by addressing their goals and objectives in the least restrictive environments -- a requirement by law (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act [IDEA]
From page 217...
... To this end, children with disabilities must be provided with effective supports to facilitate their meaningful inclusion in general education preschool settings and in community-based care. The special education team must explore all options for including the child in preschools and early care settings before deciding on more restrictive options, such as a self-contained special education preschool classroom.
From page 218...
... The percentage of students in the 3–5 years age group that receive special education and/or related services under IDEA Part B, Section 619, in each of these categories are as follows: speech or language impairment 41.44%, developmental delay 37.71%, autism 11.41%, intellectual disability 1.64%, specific learning disability 1.09%, hearing impairment 1.09%, orthopedic impairment 0.63%, emotional disturbance 0.35%, visual impairment 0.33%, traumatic brain injury 0.14%, deaf-blindness 0.02%, multiple disabilities 0.95%, and other health impairment 3.2% (OSEP, 2021a; ED et al., 2020)
From page 219...
... . There are also widespread trends of English learners being overidentified for learning disabilities in the United States since the 1960s, which disproportionately affects Latine children (National Center for Learning Disabilities, 2020; Rodríguez & Rodríguez, 2017)
From page 220...
... . Importantly, however, inclusion does not mean that children with disabilities are simply placed in general education settings; the spirit of inclusion is to meaningfully engage children with disabilities in classroom activities and provide opportunities for them to develop to their full potential alongside their same-age, typically developing peers (DEC and NAEYC, 2009)
From page 221...
... A 2019 study on peer interactions explored the influence of pragmatic language and self-regulation skills on play interactions. The findings of this study revealed that skill in both pragmatic language and self-regulation was a positive predictor of cross-status play (i.e., interactions between children with disabilities and their typically developing peers)
From page 222...
... . Children with disabilities may need more supports than their typically developing peers to achieve positive social-emotional outcomes (Lee et al., 2016)
From page 223...
... . One MTSS model, the Pyramid Model for Promoting Social Emotional Competence in Infants and Young Children, is a highly influential model implemented in preschool programs across the United States to improve social-emotional development and reduce challenging behavior in preschool settings for all children, including those with developmental disabilities (Fox et al., 2010; Hebbeler & Spiker, 2016; Hemmeter, Ostrosky, & Fox, 2006; Hemmeter, Fox, & Snyder, 2013)
From page 224...
... In addition, the population of children with disabilities is very diverse both across and within disability categories; many assessment tools have not been validated for use with this population, and sample sizes are limited for some disability categories. The curricula included in this chapter include activity-based curricula, curricula with integrated assessment and intervention planning systems, and curricular approaches for children with autism.
From page 225...
... The curriculum provides a host of recommended accommodations to help teachers consider ways to adapt their instruction and the classroom environment to meet each child's educational needs. The Building Blocks curriculum provides a roadmap for meaningfully addressing the needs of children with disabilities throughout a typical preschool day while also maintaining the structure of a general education preschool classroom.
From page 226...
... This result provided evidence for the hierarchical nature of the AEPS test, which is intended to be sensitive to differences in performance among various age groups. As goals and objectives become progressively more difficult, the AEPS test can identify children at risk for developmental delays if they cannot perform skills within the average range of their age bracket.
From page 227...
... It includes a criterionreferenced assessment for determining the child's mastery of five domains: social adaptation, cognitive, language, gross motor, and fine motor skills (Castro et al., 2011)
From page 228...
... . Children with autism are increasingly included in general education preschool settings, but early childhood teachers need adequate and targeted supports for teaching children with autism effectively, given that, by definition, many of these children have significant delays in communication and social interaction and can engage in disruptive and challenging behaviors (D'Agostino & Douglas, 2021)
From page 229...
... . In a new vision for early childhood curriculum, early childhood educators teaching children with autism who are receiving DTT therapy will need practical guidance for supporting the generalization of skills learned in DTT sessions during naturally occurring preschool routines.
From page 230...
... . English learners are specifically defined as students who have limited English proficiency upon school entry, as determined by performance on mandated English proficiency tests (Elementary and Secondary Education Act [ESEA]
From page 231...
... . These trends suggest that general education settings are not meeting the instructional needs of English learners and are thereby contributing to these children's persistent reading problems throughout the early elementary grades that result in overidentification for special education (Waitoller et al., 2010)
From page 232...
... Given that the vast majority of children served under IDEA Part B who are identified as English learners speak Spanish at home, Spanish is a priority language on which to focus for developing new multilingual curricula. However, this need not preclude efforts in communities to address the needs of all multilingual learners, particularly other large and growing populations, such as Mandarin-speaking children in San Francisco or Somali-speaking children in Minneapolis.
From page 233...
... MTSS holds promise in early childhood education for preventing the development of learning disabilities by enabling the early identification of children who may be falling behind in benchmark levels of performance, particularly in social-emotional and language and literacy development. Differentiated instruction, including MTSS for English learners, using evidencebased practices and data-based decision making is evolving as an integrated and comprehensive solution for preventing learning disability and improving educational outcomes.
From page 234...
... . Designing an outcome study to monitor the progress of students with autism spectrum disorders.
From page 235...
... . An investigation of classroom situational dimensions of emotional and behavioral adjustment and cognitive and social outcomes for head start children.
From page 236...
... . Building number sense among English Learners: A multisite randomized controlled trial of a tier 2 kindergarten mathematics intervention.
From page 237...
... . The effects of early intervention on social communication outcomes for children with autism spectrum disorder: A meta-analysis.
From page 238...
... , 40–57. https://doi.org/10.1177/1367006920938136 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
From page 239...
... . Efficacy of early interventions for infants and young children with, and at risk for, autism spectrum disorders.
From page 240...
... . 43rd annual report to Congress on the implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.
From page 241...
... . English learners with learning disabilities: What is the current state?
From page 242...
... . 41st annual report to Congress on the implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 2019.
From page 243...
... . Randomized, controlled trial of a comprehensive program for young students with autism spectrum disorder.


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