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8 State- and Program-Level Curriculum Decision Making and Selection
Pages 278-304

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From page 278...
... Each type of program is governed with different polices, regulations and funding mechanisms, including private-pay tuition; foundation grants or university sponsorship; publicly funded prekindergarten, Head Start, and child care subsidies; and other public funding streams. Programs are blended together in order to maximize access or enhance quality (Morris & Smith, 2021)
From page 279...
... Broader Curriculum Selection and Standards Curriculum standards and requirements, as well as broader early childhood systems and structures, vary by location and program funding stream. Preschool programs are often free to select any curriculum they choose or develop their own curriculum, although their curriculum decisions may be impacted by funding requirements or other program standards they are subject to.
From page 280...
... . State preschool programs have made some progress in providing more supports for curriculum implementation over the last 7 years (when NIEER started tracking it)
From page 281...
... Table 8-1 also shows which state-funded preschool programs reported providing three different supports for curriculum implementation. Forty-four (71%)
From page 282...
... Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Louisiana LA 4 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Louisiana NSECD Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Maine Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Maryland Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Massachusetts CPPI Yes Yes Prepublication Copy, Uncorrected Proofs
From page 283...
... STATE- AND PROGRAM-LEVEL CURRICULUM DECISION MAKING 8-6 AND SELECTION Massachusetts Chapter 70 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Michigan Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Minnesota Head Start Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Minnesota VPK & SRP Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Mississippi Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Missouri Yes Yes Montana Nebraska Yes Yes Yes Nevada Yes Yes Yes New Jersey Abbott Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes New Jersey ECPA Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes New Jersey ELLI Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes New Mexico Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes New York Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes North Carolina Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes North Dakota Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Ohio Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Oklahoma Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Oregon Pre-K Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Oregon Preschool Promise Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Pennsylvania RTL Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Pennsylvania HSSAP Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Pennsylvania K4 & SBPK Yes Yes Yes Yes Pennsylvania Pre-K Counts Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Rhode Island Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes South Carolina Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Tennessee Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Texas Yes Yes Yes Yes Utah Yes Vermont Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Virginia VPI Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Virginia Mixed Delivery Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Washington ECEAP Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Washington TK Yes Yes Yes West Virginia Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Prepublication Copy, Uncorrected Proofs
From page 284...
... This is determined based on what the other supports are. NOTES: CDCC = Child Day Care Contracts; CPPI = Commonwealth Preschool Partnership Initiative; CSPP = California State Preschool Program; DOE = Department of Education; ECEAP = Early Childhood Education and Assistance Program; ECPA = Early Childhood Program Aid; ELLI = Early Launch to Learning Initiative; HPCSC = Hawaii Public Charter School Commission; HSSAP = Head Start Supplemental Assistance Program; NSECD = Nonpublic School Early Childhood Development; RTL = Ready to Learn; SBPK = School-Based Prekindergarten; SRP = School Readiness Program/Plus; SWVPP = Statewide Voluntary Preschool Program; TK = Transitional Kindergarten ; VPI = Virginia Preschool Initiative; VPK =Voluntary Prekindergarten.
From page 285...
... suggests that family child care providers believe providers' creativity to plan or customize activities, particularly to supplement curricula, is a key resource in supporting children's school readiness. However, variations in curriculum implementation or differences between published and locally developed curricula may contribute to unequal learning opportunities and outcomes (Jenkins et al., 2018)
From page 286...
... Early learning standards encapsulate learning goals, or expectations for what children will know and be able to do; curricula provide the means of supporting children in achieving these goals. While standards are usually created by national organizations or state departments of education, curricula are often selected by local boards of education, officials, administrators, and teachers.
From page 287...
... To facilitate comparisons of curricula with learning standards, some publishers and state agencies provide curriculum crosswalks -- charts that juxtapose state-level standards and curriculum components. For example, Missouri developed a document to show correspondence between its standards and the Head Start Early Learning Outcomes Framework (see Missouri Department of Elementary & Secondary Education, 2021)
From page 288...
... WHAT CURRICULA DO STATES APPROVE AND SUPPORT? In 2020–2021, 30 state-funded preschool programs reported having a list of either approved or recommended comprehensive curricula from which local districts/programs could select a curriculum (Friedman-Krauss et al., 2022)
From page 289...
... , educators requested a coherent comprehensive curriculum that would not require putting together several domain-specific curricula, which is a challenging task considering high rates of staff turnover. To meet the needs of family child care providers, the curriculum covers infants through preschoolers.
From page 290...
... STATE- AND PROGRAM-LEVEL CURRICULUM DECISION MAKING 8-13 AND SELECTION of curriculum use across states and programs within state-funded preschool. These eight states enrolled just 11 percent of all children in state-funded preschool in 2020–2021.
From page 291...
... Grow 4 0 4 0 0 0 0 14 HighReach Learning Curriculum (Carson-Dellosa Publishing) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 HighScope Preschool Curriculum 0 16 0 38 0 3 5 4 InvestiGator Club (Robert-Leslie Publishing)
From page 292...
... Initiative; Eureka Math -- Great Minds and math Minnesota Voluntary For a list, see https://www.parentaware.org/wp- Literacy Prekindergarten/Sch content/uploads/2022/04/PA-011-Aligned-Curricula- and social ool Readiness March-2022.pdf. emotional Program learning Oklahoma Not reported Not reported Pennsylvania (all For a list, see Social four programs)
From page 293...
... In the District of Columbia, community-based organizations within the state-funded preschool program could request a waiver of the requirement to consistently use a comprehensive curriculum. FIDELITY OF CURRICULUM IMPLEMENTATION Fidelity of curriculum implementation is the extent to which teachers implement a curriculum as intended by the developers and is important for considering teacher professional development needs and evaluation of teacher and child outcomes (Pence et al., 2008)
From page 294...
... reported that there was no system in place to ensure fidelity of curriculum implementation, or it was determined locally. Given the importance of high-quality curricula implemented at fidelity for supporting children's learning and development in preschool, this high percentage of state-funded preschool programs not monitoring fidelity of curriculum implementation is concerning.
From page 295...
... Given the diversity of children in these programs that do not meet the curriculum standards benchmark, improving supports for curriculum implementation is needed to ensure equity of access to quality state-funded prekindergarten. Supports specifically focused on curriculum implementation for multilingual learners are essential as well.
From page 296...
... . The data can provide information about what curricular aspects work, what needs improvement, and what could be done within and beyond the classroom to support better curriculum implementation (Gullo, 2013)
From page 297...
... . Indeed, MTSS is sometimes considered an umbrella term that covers many different approaches and interventions, including curriculum design, teacher professional development, school culture change, and family and community engagement (Batsche, 2014; Thurlow et al., 2020)
From page 298...
... . Also, a small body of literature indicates that the main use of assessment data is to monitor individual child outcomes or evaluate specific teaching practices, rather than to improve preschool programs as a whole (see Little et al., 2019)
From page 299...
... The diversity of program types -- each governed by different policies, regulations, quality standards, and funding streams -- create a complex early childhood system with great variability in the experiences children have access to and in their learning outcomes. In the committee's review of available research, a number of conclusions emerged: Prepublication Copy, Uncorrected Proofs
From page 300...
... • Given the importance of high-quality curricula implemented at fidelity for supporting children's learning and development in preschool, the high percentage of state-funded preschool programs not monitoring fidelity of curriculum implementation is concerning. • Early childhood experts recommend integrating assessment of child progress into preschool curricula, with the goal of informing instruction.
From page 301...
... preschool landscape has implications for the quality of education that children receive. It is important to ensure that all preschool programs have access to high-quality curricula and that assessment is used effectively to inform instruction for all children.
From page 302...
... . Strategies for learning experiences in family child care: American and Swedish perspectives.
From page 303...
... . Alignment: Missouri Early Learning Standards and the Head Start Early Learning Outcomes Framework.
From page 304...
... Department of Health and Human Services. https://www.acf.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/documents/opre/measuring_predictors_of_quality_mpoq_i n_the_nsece_final_092315_b508.pdf National Survey of Early Care and Education Project Team.


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