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4. Animal Wastes
Pages 121-177

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From page 121...
... Fuller (1956) reported that hydrolyzed poultry litter was as effective as fish meal in achieving Growth from commercial type broiler diets.
From page 122...
... Because of the different systems of urinary excretion in livestock and poultry, a large part of the urinary nutrients tend to be lost from livestock wastes and retained with poultry wastes. Table 30 shows a partition of the nitrogen between feces and urine of various farm animals.
From page 123...
... This type of waste is referred to in this report as poultry litter waste. NUTRITIVE VALUE Chemical Composition of Animal Wastes Composition of animal wastes is shown in Appendix Tables 1 to 5.
From page 124...
... These features indicate that animal wastes are more suited to recycling systems involving ruminants, since ruminants possess a digestive tract capable of efficiently utilizing fiber and nonprotein nitrogen. The wastes possessing the highest nutritive value appear to be broiler litter and layer waste.
From page 126...
... 126 ~_ oc _' A_ Cal ._ Cal Cal a' Cal Ct Ct .
From page 127...
... Cage layer waste (processed) Broiler litter Broiler litter (processed)
From page 128...
... 128 _` Cal ._ Cal en _' V)
From page 129...
... (1976) conducted a digestibility trial with dairy cows fed diets containing up to 30 percent dehydrated layer waste.
From page 130...
... Diets containing 0, 25, 50, 75, or 100 percent dehydrated layer waste were fed to sheep (Lowman and Knight, 1970~. Metabolizable energy value of the waste was estimated to be 1.74 Mcal/kg dry matter.
From page 131...
... (1968) fed a diet containing 80 percent poultry litter waste to dairy cows and reported that digestibilities were: dry matter, 60.3 percent; crude protein, 63.8 percent; true protein, 62 percent; nonprotein nitrogen, 71.4 percent; fiber, 26.6 percent; and nitrogen-free extract, 69.9 percent.
From page 132...
... Performance of Animals Fed Animal Wastes Cattle Waste Anthony and Nix (1962) and Anthony (1966' established the feasibility of feeding steer waste to cattle.
From page 133...
... Daily gain was 1.03, 1.04, and 0.84 kg, respectively, and intake of dry matter was 4.60, 3.23, and 3.47 kg/kg gain. Poultry Waste Performance data for cattle fed diets containing dehydrated layer waste (DLW)
From page 134...
... 134 UNDERUTILIZED RESOURCES AS ANIMAL FEEDSTUFFS TABLE 35 Performance of Cattle Fed Diets Containing Dehydrated Layer Waste (DLW) Dietary Treatment Performance Control Waste Reference Daily gain (kg)
From page 135...
... Generally, the inclusion of poultry waste did not affect feed intake adversely. However, Koenig et al.
From page 136...
... Mean daily milk yield with fat and total solids for cows fed control and waste diets were, respectively, 19 and 17.7 kg, 3.51 and 3.63 percent, and 12.04 and 12.01 percent. The overall trend was for daily milk yield to be reduced slightly, but the results are very encouraging since it is well known that milk production of dairy cows can easily be depressed by the use of inappropriate diets.
From page 137...
... Mean daily liveweight gain and feed/gain ratio for animals fed control and waste diets were, respectively, 0.19 and 0.18 kg, and 5.52 and 6.66. These results indicate excellent growth performance in growing sheep fed diets containing waste, though utilization of diets containing waste appears to be significantly lower than that of control diets.
From page 138...
... Wet poultry wastes have been used in several trials. McNiven et al.
From page 139...
... Performance data for laying chickens fed diets containing dehydrated layer waste are summarized in Table 40 (Flegal and Zindel, 1971; Hodgetts, 1971; Lee and Bolton, 1977; Lee and Yang, 1976; Vogt, 1973~. The means for waste-fed birds were obtained by averaging overall levels, though some of the levels used (up to 40 percent)
From page 140...
... Poultry Litter Performance data for cattle fed diets containing poultry litter are summarized in Table 41 (Batsman, 1973; Borgioli and Tocchini, 1969; Bosman, 1973; Boubedja and Marx, 1974; Cross and Jenny, 1976; Cross et al., 1978; Cullison et al., 1976; Denis-ov et al., 1973; Fontenot et al.,
From page 141...
... (1971) reported that cattle fed for 3 months on a standard grain mixture gained 1.25 kg daily, but that daily gain fell to 0.93 kg when 25 percent of the mixture was replaced by poultry litter.
From page 142...
... In a subsequent trial the cattle were fed diets containing 0, 15, 25, or 35 percent layer waste. Daily gains were 0.91, 1.02, 1.03, and 0.94 kg and intakes of organic matter/kg gain were 9.5, 8.2, 8.2, and 8.9 kg, respectively.
From page 143...
... ~ 1968) reported on the use of broiler litter dried at 60 to 70C and fed to culled dairy cows in a mixture of 79 percent litter, 20 percent corn, and 1 percent minerals.
From page 144...
... (1971) reported on the use of dried poultry waste (sterilized broiler litter)
From page 145...
... (1971~. Because pathogens are killed in commercial dehydrators, dried poultry waste was the first animal waste product to be accepted by the American Association of Feed Control Officials.
From page 146...
... (1973) conducted a bacteriological survey on eight samples of commercial dehydrated poultry waste used for animal feeding.
From page 147...
... systems have been developed for processing animal wastes for feeding. Techniques involved include ensiling and fractionation (Cereco process)
From page 148...
... The commercial feasibility of growing feed yeasts on hydrocarbon substrates suggests that work needs to be carried out on the use of animal wastes as substrates for yeast growth. Little work appears to have been done in this area (Calvert, 19794.
From page 149...
... A wide variety of dehydrators are in use commercially, and considerable use, especially, is made of dehydrated poultry waste in animal feeding. Ensiling is used extensively for feeding wastes to livestock and has the advantage that it is an on-farm system.
From page 150...
... For example, caged waste could be ensiled with crop residues, and broiler litter with wastes from fruit or vegetable processing. The value of animal wastes will depend on their nutritional value and the price of other feeds.
From page 151...
... Total bacterial colonies were significantly increased in the silages containing 45 percent waste, but coliforms were not significantly different nor significantly lower in litter silage than in unsupplemented forage silage. No disease problems have been reported with poultry wastes in practical diets for beef cattle, dairy cattle, or sheep (Bucholtz et al., 1971; Bull and Reid, 1971; Drake et al., 1965; El-Sabban et al., 1970; Fontenot et al., 1966; Johnson et al., 1975; Liebholz, 1969; Noland et al., 1955; Southwell et al., 19584.
From page 152...
... Diets containing waste were also found to be contaminated. Fungi also may be present in animal and poultry wastes (Lovett, 1972; Lovett et al., 1971; Singh, 19741.
From page 153...
... ~ 1975a) harvested corn forage at 30 or 40 percent dry matter and ensiled it with litter from broilers kept on wood shavings to supply 15, 30, or 45 percent of the dry matter.
From page 154...
... (1970) found no adverse effects in sheep fed for 80 days on diets containing up to 75 percent poultry litter that had been sterilized by dry heat at 150C for 4 hours.
From page 155...
... on dehydrated poultry waste. They found an inverse relationship between the temperature of the dehydrator and the number of organisms and between the moisture content of the dehydrated waste and the number of organisms (see Table 464.
From page 156...
... . This could be anticipated since it is well known that sheep are very sensitive to the copper level of TABLE 45 Microorganisms Recovered From Samples of Poultry Waste Microorganisms Note Aerobacter aerogenes Alkaligenes faecales Bacillus spp.
From page 157...
... (1972) found that the inclusion of 0, 25, or 50 percent dehydrated poultry waste in diets for growing sheep resulted in normal copper values in the liver and kidney.
From page 158...
... (1972) reported that calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, magnesium, zinc, iron, copper, and manganese levels in liver and kidney of sheep fed diets containing 0, 25, or 50 percent dehydrated poultry waste were within a normal range.
From page 159...
... (1980) reported that tissue mineral levels were altered somewhat in steers fed diets containing un to 25 percent cane layer waste.
From page 160...
... (1970) reported that in steers fed processed poultry waste, chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds in back-fat and arsenic in liver were found in amounts of less than 1 mg/kg.
From page 161...
... Webb and Fontenot (1975) investigated tissue levels of nicarbazin, amprolium, and chlortetracycline in finishing cattle fed diets with 0, 25, and 50 percent broiler litter after a 5-day withdrawal.
From page 162...
... Food and Drug Administration guideline of 0.2 mg/kg for complete animal feeds. When the dehydrated poultry waste was included in a dairy concentrate at 32 percent, the highest PCB residue found in milk fat was 5 mg/kg, which was only twice the guideline of 2.5 mg/kg.
From page 163...
... Results with dairy cows fed diets containing up to 36 percent poultry waste suggest no significant effects on milk quality as judged by composition and flavor (Denisov et al., 1975a; Kristensen et al., 1976; Mello et al., 1973; Silva et al., 19761. Kristensen et al.
From page 164...
... Since little animal feed is involved in interstate commerce, the FDA in practice left the responsibility for regulatory action to the states (Taylor and Geyer, 19791. In December 1980 the FDA published a document revoking its policy regarding feeding animal waste, leaving regulation of feeding animal waste to the states (Goyan, 19801.
From page 165...
... The wastes possessing the highest nutritive value are layer waste and broiler litter. They can be processed successfully by either dehydration or ensiling.
From page 166...
... . Productivity of animals fed diets containing animal wastes is high, and when the diets are fed correctly, animals demonstrate growth rates and production of milk, meat, and eggs equal to those of animals fed traditional feed ingredients.
From page 167...
... 1982. Growth performance of broilers fed diets containing processed poultry wastes.
From page 168...
... 1976. Some Microbial, Drying, and Odor Reduction Studies of Poultry Wastes.
From page 169...
... 1975. Dried poultry waste as a supplemental nitrogen source for cattle.
From page 170...
... 1971. Dehydrated poultry waste (DPW)
From page 171...
... 1972. The nutritive value of dried poultry manure for poultry.
From page 172...
... 1971. The effects of including dried poultry waste in the feed of laying hens.
From page 173...
... 1976. Feeding value of dried poultry waste for dairy cows.
From page 174...
... 1974. Feeding dried poultry waste for intensive beef production.
From page 175...
... 1973. Chemical and bacteriological composition and the metabolisable energy value of eight samples of dried poultry waste produced in the United Kingdom.
From page 176...
... 1977. Nitrogen utilization by lambs fed wheat straw alone or with supplements containing dried poultry waste, cottonseed meal or urea.
From page 177...
... 1975. Medicinal drug residues in broiler litter and tissue from cattle fed litter.


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