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Pages 254-259

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From page 254...
... GLOSSARY American marten: Martes americana anadromous salmon: salmon that spawn in freshwaters and migrate to the ocean bald eagle: HaZiaeetus ZeucocephaZus Barrow's goldeneye: BucephaZa isZandica biodiversity: the number and genetic variability of plant, animals, and microbial species that live in a given location biomass: broadly, all of the organic material on a given area; in a more narrow sense, burnable vegetation to be used for fuel in a combustion system black bear: Ursus americanus canadensis black-backed woodpecker: Picoictes arcticus boar~foot: unit of measurement for lumber and saw logs; refers to a 12 x 12 x ~ inch board or a segment of a log that will produce boards with these dimensions borealowI: AegoZiusfunereus buffer strip (or zone) : strip of land varying in size and shape, intended to preserve or enhance aesthetic values around recreation sites and along roads, trails, or water brown-headed cowbird: MoZothrus ater butt rot: decay or rot characteristically confined to the base or lower bole of a tree California red-backed vole: CZethrionomys caZifornicus 254
From page 255...
... Glossary 255 canopy: more or less continuous cover of branches and foliage formed collectively by adjacent tree crowns canyon live oak: Quercus chrysolepis chestnut-backed chickadee: Parus ruiescens chinook: Oncorhynchus tschawylscha choker: short length of flexible wire, rope, or chain used to attach logs to a winch line or directly to a tractor chum: Oncorhynchus keta clearcut: a logging method in which ah trees in an area are harvested, regardless of age or size climax forest: plant community dominated by trees representing the culminating stage of natural succession for that specific locality and environment climax species: plant species that wit! remain essentially unchanged in terms of species composition for as long as the site remains undisturbed coastal cutthroat trout: Oncorhynchus cZarki coho: Oncorhynchus kisutch common nighthawk: ChordeiZes minor competition: struggle among trees and other vegetation, generally for limited nutrients, light, and water present on a site conifer: tree that is a gymnosperm, usually evergreen, with cones and needle-shaped or scalelike leaves, producing wood known commercially as softwood controlled burning: use of fire to destroy logging debris, reduce buildups of dead and fallen timber, control tree diseases, and clear land crown ~inning: removing live growth in a tree crown to admit light, reduce weight, and lessen wind resistance density: number of trees per unit area of land dbh: diameter at breast height; measure of a tree at 4.5 feet above ground level Dolly Varden trout: SaZveZinus maZma Douglas-fir: Pseudotsuga menziesii Douglas-fir bark beetle: Dend~roctonus pseudlotsugae down wood: large logs on the forest floor dwarf mistletoe: Arceuthobium spy.
From page 256...
... 256 Pacific Northwest Forests Eastside: area from the Cascade crest east through eastern Washington and Oregon and central Idaho; much drier than the Westside ectomycorrhizal relationship: a symbiotic relationship between a fungus and the external roots of certain plants effective population size: the number of breeding adults that would provide the rate of inbreeding observed in a population if mating were random and the sexes were equal in number Engelmann spruce: Picea engeZmannii even-aged stand: stand of trees in which there are only small differences in age among the individual trees extensive margin: forests previously economically unsuitable for harvesting extractive jobs: jobs related to timber harvesting and removal fel~field: rocky soil-less slopes at high elevations FEMAT: Forest Ecosystem Management Assessment Team, created by President Clinton in 1993 fiber: wood volume produced by a tree or trees that can be converted into wood products, such as lumber, paper, or cardboard; also known as pulpwood financial rotation: rotation of tree crops determined solely by financial considerations to obtain the highest monetary values over time, in terms of optimum net present value or return on investment fireweed: Epilobiumangustifolium fisher: Martespennanti flammulated owl: Otusflammeolus flicker: CoZaptes auratus forest floor: general term for the surface layer of soil supporting forest vegetation; includes all dead vegetation on the mineral soil surface in the forest as well as litter and unincorporated humus golden chinquapi: Castanea pumila golden-crowned king:let: ReguZus satrapa "olden-crowned sparrow: ZonotrichioatricapiZZa goldeneye: BucephaZacZanguZa goshawk: AccipitergentiZis grand fir: Abiesgrandis gray wolf: Canis lupus
From page 257...
... Glossary great gray owl: Strix nebuZosa grizzly bear: Ursus arctos horribiZis 257 hardwood: dicotyledonous trees, usually broad-leaved and deciduous harvesting: removing merchantable trees hermit warbler: Dendroica occiclentaZis Indian Paint fungus: Echinodontiumlinctorium intensive margin: forests that already have been supplying wood to markets ISC: Interagency Scientific Committee kestrel: FaZco sparverius legacies: changes that occur or remain as a result of disturbance, e.g., residual debris, seed banks, advanced regeneration, and surviving plants and animals that influence future change Lewis' woodpecker: MeZanerpes lewis Isobaric oregona: a nitrogen-fixing lichen lodgepole pine: Pinus contorta loggerhead shrike: Lanius Zudovicianus lynx: Eynxcanadensis manzanita: ArctostaphyZos marbled murrelet: Brachyramphus marmoratus mineralization: the process by which elements present in organic compounds are eventually converted into inorganic forms, ultimately to become available for a new cycle of plant growth moose: AZces vices mountain bluebird: Sialia currucoides mountain chickadee: ParusgambeZi mountain hemlock: Tsuga mertensiana Multiple-use forestry: concept of forest management that combines two or more objectives, such as production of wood or wood-derivative products, forage and browse for domestic livestock, proper environmental conditions for wildlife, landscape effects, protection against floods and erosion, recreation, and protection of water supplies
From page 258...
... 258 NFP: Northwest Forests Plan noble fir: Abies procera northern spotted owl: Strix occidentaZis caurina Pacific Northwest Forests olive-sided flycatcher: Contopus cooper) Option 9: one of the management choices presented to President Clinton by FEMAT in 1993; it has since been revised and termed the Northwest Forests Plan OSB: oriented strand board osprey: Pandion haZiaetus overstory: tan, mature trees that rise above the shorter immature understory trees Pacific madrone: Arbutus menziesii Pacific silver fir: Abies amabiZZis Pacific-siope flycatcher: Empidonox difi5iciZis Pacific yew: Taxus brevifoZia patchiness: small islands of regenerating trees scattered through a matrix of older trees peregrine falcon: FaZcoperegrinus pileated woodpecker: Dryocopus piZeatus pink salmon: Oncorhynchus gorbuscha plantation: forest stand regenerated artificially either by sowing or planting ponderosa pine: Pinusponderosa Port Orford cedar root rot: PhytopEthora ZateraZis pulp: mechanically ground or chem~caBy digested wood used in manufacturing paper and aDied products pulpwood: wood cut or prepared primarily for wood pulp and subsequent manufacture into paper, fiberboard, or other products, depending largely on the species cut and the pulping process rainbow trout: Oncorhynchus mykiss red alder: AZnus rubra red fir: Abies magnifies red-breasted sapsucker: Sphyrapicus rugar red-eyed vireo: Vireo oZivaceus
From page 259...
... . ~ containing sporang~a or spores spruce budworm: Choristoneura occidentaZis stand: a tree community that possesses sufficient uniformity in composition, constitution, age, spatial arrangement, or condition to be distinguishable from adjacent communities steelhead trout: Oncorhynchus mykiss stocks: salmon: geneticaDydistinctlines subalpine fir: Abies Zasiocarpa substrate: a surface on which a plant or animal grows or is attached Swainson's thrush: Catharus ustuZatus 259 - 1tanoak: Lithocarpus dlensi.forus

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