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Biographical Memoirs Volume 68 (1995) / Chapter Skim
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William Bradford Shockley
Pages 305-324

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From page 305...
... His parents were Americans. His father, William Hiliman Shockley, was a mining engineer, anti his mother, the former May BraciforcI, ha(1 been a fe(leral deputy surveyor of mineral lancis.
From page 306...
... undergraduate days. Among other things, Shockley demonstrated, with the use of an empty lattice model, that the precise determination of band gaps for real crystals with the use of the cellular method would require highly evolved techniques.
From page 307...
... We selected the southern route through Arizona, New Mexico, Texas and Arkansas, eventually reaching the Lincoln Highway in Ohio. Along the way, we visited Carlsbad Caves and the Kentucky Caves including the then famous Floyd Collins Crystal Cave in Kentucky.
From page 308...
... He apparently was unable to place himself in the shoes of others and thereby understand that advocating strong eugenic measures in a highly diverse society is bound to be highly disruptive. Yet he advocated that such a course be followed to the very end of his life.
From page 309...
... Since Shockley wanted to drive west and Hansen wanted to participate in the advanced summer physics lecture series at the University of Michigan, the three of us started west together. The school at Michigan had not yet begun when we arrived but Robert Bacher, who held a postdoctoral position and was widely known for the book he and Samuel Goudsmit had published on atomic spectra, took us in hand and gave us an excellent tour of the department.
From page 310...
... Shockley could spend hours at the game. In the latter part of the 1980s, a dean of engineering at one of the large South African universities, who frequently visited Stanford University where Shockley spent his later years, invited the latter to visit South Africa in order to give a speech commemorating the invention of the transistor.
From page 311...
... He then became research (Erector of the Antisubmarine Warfare Operations Research Group set up by the Nav,v Department at Columbia University. He was in the Naval Operations Research position from 1942 until 1944.
From page 312...
... their work as pure research, from the beginning it was clearly Shockley's goal to discover a solid-state amplifier as a replacement for the vacuum tube. Shockley returned to the iclea of the field effect transistor, in which an externally applied electric field!
From page 313...
... In the process of devising an experimental test of the transistor action, Shockley invented the junction transistor. He reported on this device in a paper in the Bell System TechnicaZ fournaP en c} gave a comprehensive review of the electronic behavior of semiconductors in a book in ]
From page 314...
... His ability to approach a (liff~cult problem in a remarkably effective manner, to break the problem into its fundamental components, and to find an elegant solution was a strong factor in his approach to the general problem of achieving a more basic understanding of semiconductors. Shockley was adventuresome, professionally and as an indiviclual.
From page 315...
... Fret! Terman, then provost of Stanford University, was eager to see new industry in the new electronics technology started near Stanford and was starting a parallel effort in the Stanford electrical engineering department.
From page 316...
... Shockley helped establish a new memory technology based on the controller! motion of small domains called magnetic bubbles.
From page 317...
... In 1980 Shockley brought a $~.25 million libel suit against the Atlanta Constitution for an article it published about his ideas on race ant] intelligence.
From page 318...
... A few public recognitions of his accomplishments are the Medal for Merit (19461; election to the National Academy of Sciences (19511; Air Force Association Citation of Honor for Outstanding Public Service (19511; Morris Liebmann Award (19531; Oliver Buckley Solic! State Physics Prize (19531; Certificate of Appreciation from the Department of the Army (19531; anal, with Barcleen and Brattain, the Nobel Prize in physics for inventing the transistor (19561.
From page 319...
... Shockley's activity in designing experiments to elucidate the physical processes in the point contact device led to the invention of the junction transistor. Both of these activities completely justified his receipt of the Nobel Prize.
From page 320...
... Nobel Prize Winners.
From page 321...
... 344-66. The theory of pen junctions in semiconductors and pen junction transistors.
From page 322...
... Detailed balance limit of efficiency of pen junction solar cells.
From page 323...
... Schroen. Mobile electric charges on insulating oxides with application to oxide covered silicon pen junctions.


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