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Biographical Memoirs Volume 68 (1995) / Chapter Skim
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Carroll Milton Williams
Pages 413-434

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From page 413...
... "A Morphological en cl Physiological Analysis of the Flight of Drosophila, with Special Reference to Factors Controlling Wing Beat" and was written in what was to become Williams's characteristic and unique style with its humorous overtones. In collaboration with Leigh Chadwick and with advice from Professor Ecigerton of MTT, Carroll designecl a small apparatus that measured accurately and reproclucibly, by a stroboscopic method, the wing beat frequency of both wil(l-type and mutant strains of tiny fruit flies in flight under a wide variety of conditions, such as 413
From page 414...
... useful observation that insects can be anesthetized for long periods of time, uncier continuous flow of carbon dioxicle in a Buchner funnel, thus permitting surgical manipulations without Toss of blood or damage. While still a junior fellow, he decicled to obtain a medical degree anct in 1946 received his M.D.
From page 415...
... He soon found that removal of the brain from a pupa leads to permanent diapause but that adult development took place promptly if the brain from a chilled pupa was clroppe(1 into a brainless diapausing pupa at 25C, even if the latter was of a differ
From page 416...
... Nor was the fact that, upon entering diapause, most comportents of the cytochrome system were broken clown an(l, with the exception of the intersegmental muscles of the pupal abdomen, tissue respiration, including that of the heart, which continued to beat slowly, became insensitive
From page 417...
... Lower: Implanted endocrine organs have caused adult development of the abdomen, which is shown laying eggs.
From page 418...
... Even after 50,000-fold purification, the active component still contained impurities, but the purest preparations tract the properties of a terpenoict acid, and certain synthetic derivatives of farnesoic acid tract potent juvenile hormone activity.
From page 419...
... By the mid-1970s this prediction had been verified. Three closely related juvenile hormones had been synthesized, and several substances that cleraiT clevelopment of certain insect species by turning off secretion of juvenile hormone by the corpora allata hacl been isolated from plants in other laboratories.
From page 420...
... Manduca larvae cluring their final fifth instar increase their weight within four to five days from about ~ g to as much as 10 g, after which they stop fee(ling and purge their gut, reducing their weight to 5 g. After the purge the larvae enter a "wandering stage" that soon ends in an abrupt onset of negative phototaxis.
From page 421...
... penetrating questions relating to the biological significance of their molecular finclings, even though the subject might be quite remote from his own fielcI. Carroll enjoyed teaching and was not only an entertaining and popular lecturer but also stimulates!
From page 422...
... it will come as no surprise to learn that Carroll was in much clemanct as a gifted lecturer. He was invite ct to deliver more than forty named lectures, among which, to mention only a few, were the Lowell lectures in Boston (19481; the Harvey Lecture in New York (19521; the AAAS Holiday Lecture, University of Chicago (19701; and the CSTRO Lectures in Australia ~ ~ 973)
From page 423...
... Van der Kloot, and David G Shappirio for sending me their reminiscences of Carroll and to Daniel Branton and Fotis Kafatos for critical reading of the manuscript.
From page 424...
... 424 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS HONORS AND DISTINCTIONS Borden Research Award, Harvard Medical School, 1946 AAAS-Newcomb Cleveland Prize, 1950 Guggenheim Fellowship (Cambridge University) , 1955-56 Founders Memorial Award, Entomological Society of America, 1958 Boylston Medalist, Harvard Medical School, 1961 Trustee of Radcliffe College, 1961-64 George Leslie Award, Harvard University, 1967 Howard Taylor Ricketts Award, University of Chicago, 1969 Chief scientist to Alpha Helix expedition to the upper Amazon
From page 425...
... Science 103:57-59. Physiology of insect diapause: the role of the brain in the production and termination of pupal dormancy in the giant silkworm Platysamia cecropia.
From page 426...
... III. The prothoracic glands in the Cecropia silkworm, with special reference to their significance in embryonic and post-embryonic development.
From page 427...
... VII. Respiratory metabolism of the Cecropia silkworm during diapause and adult development.
From page 428...
... Juvenile hormone in thymus, human placenta and other mammalian organs. Nature 183:405.
From page 429...
... XIV. An endocrine mechanism for the photoperiodic control of pupal diapause in the oak silkworm, Antherea pernyi.
From page 430...
... Lethal effects of synthetic juvenile hormone on larvae of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes egypti. Science 154:104344.
From page 431...
... Theoretical aspects of the action of juvenile hormone. In Insect Juvenile Hormones, ed.
From page 432...
... Precocious termination of diapause in neck- and abdomen-ligated pupal preparations of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta.


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