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Biographical Memoirs Volume 68 (1995) / Chapter Skim
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Jerrold R. Zacharias
Pages 435-450

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From page 435...
... RAMSEY JERROLD ZACHARIAS MADE important, creative, and lasting contributions to physics, national defense, and education. He participated in the first molecular beam magnetic resonance experiments; he measured nuclear magnetic moments and electric quadrupole moments of various nuclei, including the proton and cleuteron; he confirmed the anomalous hyperf~ne separation in atomic hydrogen; and he clevelope the first commercial atomic clocks.
From page 436...
... Their musical mother was consequently less interested in Errol, who found real companionship in his nurse, Anna Liza Johnson, who later carecl for Jerroicl's children in New York City. JerroIcl's interest in physics began at age four with a fascination with his grancifather's automobile and continued into his teens with interests in photography, crystal set raclio, and the Tom Swift books.
From page 437...
... B Kellogg, a young Columbia instructor newly arrived from Towa, on the more difficult task of measuring the nuclear magnetic moments of hydrogen and deuterium.
From page 438...
... This experiment was the forerunner of many different kinds of resonance experiments, including nuclear magnetic resonance and paramagnetic resonance. The first resonance experiment was soon
From page 439...
... In 1940 ~errold and T were invited to give talks on our magnetic and electric dipole moment measurements at a meeting of the American Physical Society in Seattle, Washington, so Jerrold drove my new wife and me cross country to Seattle and then back to Glacier Park where we were joined by l~eona. The trip was scientifically and scenically exciting but politically distressing since the Nazis were moving through France almost as rapidly as we moved across the United States.
From page 440...
... NUCLEAR SCIENCE, ATOMIC BEAMS, AND ATOMIC CLOCKS At the war's end Jerrold Zacharias returned to MTT as professor of Physics en c] director of the newly established Laboratory for Nuclear Science en cl Engineering.
From page 441...
... The half second required for the roundtrip in the fountain was approximately fifty times greater than that for an atom to traverse the oscillatory field region of a conventional atomic beam apparatus, so the resonance wraith, by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, would be fifty times narrower with corresponclingly increased clock accuracy. Despite valiant efforts by Zacharias ant!
From page 442...
... In 1955 Zacharias ctirectect Project Lamp Light to study fleet ant! air defense.
From page 443...
... He deeply believed that the United States would suffer in the future from the inadequacy of its science education and that "in order to save our democracy, we've got to It the neonle who r - -r vote." Although his initial plans emphasized the development of a series of educational physics films, he approached the problems of education in the same broad manner that had been so successful in his defense studies. With the support of the National Science Foundation, he assembled a brilliant array of individuals, including research physicists, teachers, scholars, writers, and motion picture directors, to form the Physical Sciences Study Committee (PSSC)
From page 444...
... EST to establish the influential Social Studies Curriculum Program and the Negro College Program. A triple bypass coronary operation in 1977 only siowecl Zacharias as he continued to push for education reform.
From page 445...
... I Rabi Award "for technical excellence and outstanding contributions in the fields relating to atomic and molecular frequency standards." Zacharias also received honorary degrees from Tufts University, Oklahoma City University, St.
From page 446...
... The teaching of physics in many elementary and seconclary schools was greatly changed by studies, such as PSSC, initiated by Zacharias and by new movies, classroom materials, and teacher training programs. The success of these programs in turn stimulatecI similar education reforms in other sciences and in other countries.
From page 447...
... Kusch. The molecular beam resonance method for measuring nuclear magnetic moments.
From page 448...
... Atomic beam magnetic resonance experiments with Na22, K40, CSI35 and Cs~37 Phys Rev 76:1068 1957 Today's science tomorrow's promise. Technol.
From page 449...
... JERROLD R ZACHARIAS 449 1980 The case of the missing scientists.


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