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Pages 13-16

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From page 13...
... However, increased frequency alone is usually not enough to establish a causal relationship between an exposure and a health effect. To help evaluate causality it is also necessary to consider the following questions (Hill, 1965~: · Does the frequency of the disease increase as the dose there a dose-response relationship)
From page 14...
... In addition, a dose-response relationship that could not be attributed to other variables such as malnutrition was found, the effect was biologically plausible, and the incidence returned to normal in children born subsequently to those who had been exposed in utero. Small head size is a teratogenic effect (induced by exposure of the developing fetus to the teratogen in contrast to a genetic effect, which is passed from parent to child through a defective gene.
From page 15...
... The same difficulties described above would apply to an even greater extent when assessing multiple adverse reproductive events within a family. Guidelines for cluster investigations have recently been set forth by the Centers for Disease Control (19901.
From page 16...
... Similarly, investigators may publish positive results but may not publish negative results, and scientific journals generally favor reports of positive results. Consequently, the public is often left with a distorted view of scientific reality.

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