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Pages 17-20

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From page 17...
... magnitude and distribution of exposure to the hazard being studied; 5. accuracy with which the exposure can be measured (measurement of absorbed dose, as in the atomic bomb survivors, is extremely important since the most compelling evidence of causality is the demonstration of a dose-response relationship)
From page 18...
... DEFINING THE DISEASE AND ASCERTAINING THE CASES for previous time In an ideal study, the disease would be defined by examination of pathologic tissues or other direct diagnostic means. More often one must rely on medical records or self-reports.
From page 19...
... People must sometimes be asked to recall events that occurred many years earlier. Study subjects are known to have trouble recalling even such major events as a spontaneous abortion, much less the clinical details of those events (Wilcox and Homey, 1984J, and men typically recall medical events relating to pregnancy, delivery, infancy, and childhood less well than women.
From page 20...
... Epidemiologic studies usually involve a review of various types of existing records, including medical records, and may also involve interviews with individuals regarding medical and other personal information. It has become standard ethical practice in the United States to have epidemiologic protocols reviewed by federally mandated Institutional Review Boards (IRB)

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