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Pages 21-26

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From page 21...
... The electromagnetic spectrum extends from very long wavelengths, which include electric power, television and radio, to those in the middle, which include visible and ultraviolet light. Approaching the other end of the spectrum, those with the shorter wavelengths include microwaves, radar, and infrared radiation, and as the wavelength becomes very short, the spectrum contains the highly energetic waves of ionizing radiation.
From page 22...
... Radioactive materials that emit alpha particles are a hazard only if they are inhaled or ingested and get into the cells of the body in sufficiently large concentrations. Because X rays and gamma rays travel as very-high-energy electromagnetic waves, they can penetrate the human body quite easily.
From page 23...
... Because of their high-LET characteristics alpha particles can be much more damaging, for a given absorbed dose, than low-LET radiations such as beta particles and gamma rays. Low-LET radiations ionize the atoms in their paths much less frequently and produce tracks that are much less densely ionized.
From page 24...
... For most of the Atomic Veterans exposed to fallout, the dose rate would generally be low, whereas for those exposed directly to a weapon at the time of explosion, the dose rate would be high. Given the dose information, presented in Chapter 9, it would appear that almost all of the Atomic Veterans have what would be classified as a low dose, and therefore, a reduction factor of 2 for potential biologic effects could be assumed, that is, half that expected at a high dose and a high dose rate.
From page 25...
... . Only 10 percent of the Atomic Veterans appear to have received doses that would exceed the naturally occurring difference in radiation resulting from living in Denver compared with that from living in an area in the United States with a more typical level of background radiation.
From page 26...
... , chromosomal breakage on culture of their fibroblasts, and a high risk of lymphoma. When the lymphoma is treated with conventional doses of X rays, a severe, often lethal acute radiation reaction occurs.

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