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Pages 74-78

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From page 74...
... Usually, these are related to sample size, population composition, certainty of dose, presence of concurrent disease, and other confounding factors. The study of the atomic bomb survivors is the largest, longest, and most comprehensive epidemiologic study of radiation-induced carcinogenesis and mutagenesis that has been undertaken.
From page 75...
... Although fallout patterns can be modeled by computer, experience from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986 has shown that individual doses may vary by a factor of 10 or more from the estimated average. Studies of fallout within the United States as a result of weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site have been performed as part of a significant scientific effort to reconstruct doses.
From page 76...
... Studies of populations living around nuclear power plants have the advantage that they can be well defined assuming that there has been little population mobility. Unfortunately, in the United States mobility is common and so an effort must be made to guarantee that the patients with disease, in fact, lived near the plant at the appropriate time before the latent period for cancer induction.
From page 77...
... Some of the potentially informative data are already available in a machine-retrievable format at the Armstrong Laboratory of Brooks Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas. Moreover, a computer program, known as CARI, for estimating exposure to aircraft crews was developed at the request of the Federal Aviation Administration for commercial crews, but it should be applicable to Air Force crews as well.
From page 78...
... Some of the information needed to estimate doses may be classified, but if the doses are computed by individuals in the Air Force with the appropriate security clearance, this might not be a major difficulty. It warrants noting, perhaps, that this same problem arose in the estimation of the doses received by the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and was overcome by using suitably cleared technical personnel.

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