Skip to main content

Currently Skimming:

3 - Fog-Oil Smoke
Pages 60-97

The Chapter Skim interface presents what we've algorithmically identified as the most significant single chunk of text within every page in the chapter.
Select key terms on the right to highlight them within pages of the chapter.


From page 60...
... Fog-Oi' Smoke BACKGROUND INFORMATION Military Applications Fog oil smoke is the term used to describe an oft smoke gener ated by injecting mineral oil into a heated manifold. The oft vaporizes upon heating ant]
From page 61...
... Although little information is available regarding the health effects of fog oil, inferences can be drawn to a large extent from the health effects of lubricating and mineral oils. However, only certain cutting oils would be appropriate in making such a comparison.
From page 62...
... Ad fog oils (basically, naphthenic oils) are similar to conventionally refined mineral oils, which contain vari ous carcinogenic or potentially carcinogenic substances, including PAHs and related heterocyclic compounds.
From page 63...
... and stu dents. Fog oil smoke exposure concentrations ranged from 0 to 680 mg/m3.
From page 64...
... TOXICOKINETICS No slate are available to evaluate the toxicokinetics of fog oil smoke or aerosols of similar oils in humans or in animals. TOXICITY SUMMARY Effects in Humans Dermal Exposures Noncancerous Skin lesions Short exposures to lubricating oils can cause mild erythema.
From page 65...
... 1975, 1976~. In jute and cotton textile workers exposed to high concen "rations of mineral oils, high rates of skin ant]
From page 66...
... mineral oils that lack PAHs. Over 400 cases of lipoicI pneumonia resulting from ingestion, in halation of oil based nose drops, or intralaryngeal injection of me clicinal oil were reported in the literature before 1978 (lARC 19841.
From page 67...
... Persistent minor respiratory tract infections were evident in workers exposed to mineral water emulsions resulting in oft mist concentrations averaging 2 mg/m3. However, the symptoms could not be associated with occupational exposure to the mist (Heroin and Lucas 1972~.
From page 68...
... The metal working fluids were either straight mineral oils, soluble oil emulsions, or synthetic fluids. Average exposure of the three unexposed groups (assemblers)
From page 69...
... an increased prevalence of slight basal cell lung fibrosis in workers exposed to oil mists ant! hero sene vapors compared with workers in the same company not ex posed to those substances.
From page 70...
... in workers exposed to cutting oils but not in those exposed to mineral oils. They con cludect that the risk for melanoma was probably due to nitrosa mines in the cutting oils.
From page 71...
... mineral oils are carcinogenic via dermal exposures (Bin" ham et al. 1965; lepsen et al.
From page 72...
... hyperplasia produced by the diesel fuel act as tumor promoters. Similar considerations might apply to the tumorigenicity of mineral oils, although they are less irritating than diesel fuel.
From page 73...
... Pu/mon~ry Effects. Submicron mists of medicinal gracle min eral oil, laboratory grade paraffin oil, grade S 75 light lubricating oil, and SAE 10W 30 motor of!
From page 74...
... 10 olL Ashy et hi. lg5Ot _z~e~ Four creek exposures of mice to mineral~oU aerosols at ~ concentradon of 4~500 mg/m~ caused localized foreign boy Pardons and lipoid pneumonia (Shosh~s et at.
From page 75...
... at 1,500 mg/m3, total lung protein, to tat cell count, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes were elevated in bronchoalveolar ravage fluid. The animals also exhibited mild in flammatory pulmonary edema.
From page 76...
... (1964) exposed five species the rat, rabbit, clog, hamster, and mouse to white mineral oil mists at 5 or 100 mg/m3 for varying periods of 6 months to 2 years.
From page 77...
... 1950~; neither clid exposure of CAFl/lax mice to mineral oil (comparable to new fog oil) at 5 and 100 mg/m3 for 13 months (Wagner et al.
From page 78...
... summarized the acute lethality of inhalation exposure of rats to old fog oil aerosols. Table 3 2 summarizes the available exposure response ciata for nonlethal effects in humans and animals of exposures to aerosols of fog oil and similar mineral oils.
From page 80...
... 80 sit .
From page 82...
... 82 5Cal 'no ~ o ˘ O ~ _ ok , -s Z ~ .§ _ 5 ;._ ~5~~ o m ~ o o _ 0 00 C: ~ 4 U)
From page 84...
... New fog oil might correspond roughly to the more severely refined oils included in IARC class 4, which are hydra treated oils, or to the less severely refined oils in class 5, such as analytic grade white mineral oils.
From page 85...
... Type of Fog Oil Conventionally refined mineral oils, which are similar to old fog oil, have been shown to cause cancer of the skin of the arms, hancts, and scrotum of humans, whereas mineral oils are thought unlikely to be carcinogenic after undergoing severe solvent refining or hyciro treatment. To protect military personnel from cancer
From page 86...
... fog oil for production of smokes to which military personnel would be exposed. In some cases, severe solvent refining or hydra treatment floes not remove all carcinogens.
From page 87...
... have been set at 5 mg/m3 to avoid complaints by workers. Given the lack of data on health effects of short term expo sures of humans to mineral oil mists, the subcommittee used the LOAEL for pulmonary effects in mice exposed for 2 hr at 4,500 mg/m3 (ShosEkes et al.
From page 88...
... . Permissible Exposure Guidance Levels (PEGL)
From page 89...
... exposure of humans to fog oil or severely refined mineral oil aerosols at concentrations above 15 to 60 mg/m3. Moreover, there are no human or animal 7 Guidance for repeated exposures of public communities near military training facilities.
From page 90...
... EEGL 15 min 360 1 hr 90 6hr 15 PEGL 8 hr/d, 5 d/wk 5 . TABLE 3 4 SPEGLs and PPEGL for New Fog Oil Smoke at the Boundaries of Military Training Facilities Exposure Exposure Guidance Level Guideline Duration (mg/m3)
From page 91...
... Finally, the subcommittee notes that Army personnel who work with this smoke, trainers in particular, are potentially a rich source of information on the health effects of the smoke. The sub committee recommends that the Army conduct a prospective study with appropriate controls in which pulmonary function tests and routine chemistry tests (panel 20 plus Mg and thyroid tests as a minimum requirement)
From page 92...
... 1979. Respiratory response of guinea pigs to of!
From page 93...
... 1950. Skin cancer in the engi peering industry from the use of mineral oil.
From page 94...
... 1980b. Correlations of mutagenic activity with polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon con tent of various mineral oils.
From page 95...
... 1984. Toxicological characteristics of refinery streams used to manufac lure lubricating oils.
From page 96...
... 1950. Chronic lipid pneumonia following occupational exposure.
From page 97...
... 1985. Cytogenetic analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes in glass workers occupa tionally exposed to mineral oils.


This material may be derived from roughly machine-read images, and so is provided only to facilitate research.
More information on Chapter Skim is available.