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4 - Red Phosphorous Smoke
Pages 98-126

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From page 98...
... . The compositions of the various phosphorus smokes are similar, being composed primarily of polyphosphoric acids with less than 1% trace levels of organic compounds.
From page 99...
... Physical and Chemical Properties The recI allotropic form of elemental phosphorus is interme diate to the black and white varieties in reactivity. Rect phospho rus reacts slowly with oxygen ant]
From page 100...
... 1985~. The particles are composed primarily of var ions phosphoric acids present as a complex mixture of polymeric forms with organic compounds ant!
From page 101...
... TOXICITY SUMMARY: ELEMENTAL RED PHOSPHORUS Rec! phosphorus is a relatively inactive allotrope of phospho rust Little, if any, significant toxicity appears to be associated with
From page 102...
... Similarly, dermal application of the element to guinea pigs resulted in no skin irrita lion or sensitization. Tnterdermal injection resulted in only slight irritation.
From page 103...
... For rats, average exposure concentrations ranged from 1,128 to 1,882 mg/m3, and exposure durations
From page 104...
... producing CT values of 67,685 to 451,680 mg~min/m3. For guinea pigs, exposure concentrations ranged from 120 to 2,277 mg/m3, and exposure durations ranged from 5 to 150 min.
From page 105...
... All the other concentrations tested (5,360, 4,330, and 3,150 mg/m3 for ~ hr and 1,530 mg/m3 for 4 hr) also resulted in some lethality in the exposed groups.
From page 106...
... The lowest exposure concentrations tested for the rat, guinea pig, and dog were 1,128 mg/m3 for 60 min.
From page 107...
... The mean daily exposure time was about 8 min. At the high exposure concentration, the cumulative CT was 81,691 mg~min/m3; the mean daily exposure CT was 1,319 mg~min/m3, and the mean ciaily exposure duration was 8 min.
From page 108...
... During the exposure, wheezing and labored breathing were observed in the male rats exposed at the hilly dose. Decreased body weights and reduced food consumption were seen in the male rats during the 4 week exposure, but those conditions returned to normal during the 14 day recovery period.
From page 109...
... terminal bronchiolar fibrosis ant! erosions of the laryngeal mucosa with deposition of fibrin on the surface.
From page 110...
... The NOAEL for terminal bronchiolar fibrosis from exposure to RP BR was 50 mg/m3, ant! the lowest observed act verse effect level (LOAEL)
From page 111...
... In the 13 week exposure paradigm, increased cellular ATP levels occurred at the lowest exposure concentration tested (300 mg/rn3) , but cle creased activity of 5' nucleotidase occurred only at exposure con centratic~n.s of 750 ma/m3 or higher (Aranyi et al.
From page 112...
... In a single genera lion study using the same exposure concentrations, offspring body weights were decreased on postnatal clay (PND) 1 in the high close group, with a rebound in body weights in these pups at PNDs 14 ant]
From page 113...
... recIness of the eyes have been re ported at exposure concentrations of 1,128 mg/m3 for ~ hr for rats, 1,519 mg/m3 for 30 min for clogs, 1,212 mg/m3 for 90 min for dogs, and 120 mg/m3 for 5 min for guinea pigs (Table 4 3~. Reports have indicates!
From page 115...
... 115 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ~4= 4 - 4 ~4 ~4 - ~4 4 ~ ~5- so so 5- ~5- ~5 ._ ~ ~ ~.s ~ .s ~ ~ ~ ~ ~·s ~ ~ ~ ~ ˘= 3~ 3= 3= 3> 3= 3= 3= 3= o ~ \ o S O ~_ ~ ~ ~ ~ C ~ ~ ~7 TIC To To To o 5 4 d A; ._ US ._ .
From page 116...
... 116 .§ 'o ˘ it, ~ A, ˘ Z to :~7 o ~ · ~ · · AD · ~ ~ ~ ~CD 5- ~ ~ _Q ~ C)
From page 117...
... 117 ._ ~so ·_d ·_ ~so ˘ ˘ U3 Ed C)
From page 118...
... points. EXISTING RECOMMENDED EXPOSURE LIMITS The American Conference of Governmental Inclustrtal Hype gienists (ACGIH 1991)
From page 119...
... exposure guidance levels for military personnel exposed during an emergency release and during regular training exercises and for consideration at military training facility bound aries to protect nearby communities from emergency or repeated releases of RP BR smoke. Military Exposures Emergency Exposure Guidance Level (EEGL)
From page 120...
... Data from the rat and clog indicate a tOAEL for respiratory distress at an exposure concentration of approximately 1,200 mg/m3 for ~ to I.5 hr (Table 4 3~. Using an uncertainty factor of 10 to extrapolate from a LOAEL to a NOAEL and an acIditional uncertainty factor of 10 to extrapolate from animals to humans, flee subcommittee developed a ~ hr EEGE of 10 mg/m3 (i.e., 12 rounded to one significant digit)
From page 121...
... Because the product of concerti is primarily phosphoric acid, the existing TEV MA for phosphoric acid echo sure seems appropriate for military personnel as well. Therefore, establishing another set of exposure limits is not necessary.
From page 122...
... To extend this exposure level to the general population requires the incorporation of an additional uncertainty factor of 10, because the general population might in elude indivicluals who are more sensitive to such exposures than are healthy workers. Dividing the existing TEV TWA for phosphoric acid of I.0 mg/m3 by a factor of 10 (for sensitive subpopulations)
From page 123...
... Research in the following areas will provide better insight into possible health effects of inhalation of RP BR ant! help to determine with greater confidence a guidance level that is not overly conservative but is s cie n tif ic ally cle f e n s ib le.
From page 124...
... 1986. Research and Development on Inhalation Toxicologic Evaluation of Red Phosphorus/Butyl Rubber Combustion Prod
From page 125...
... 1977. The Acute Effects of Single Exposure to United Kingdom Red Phosphorus Screening Smoke in Rats, Guinea Pigs, Rabbits,
From page 126...
... 1980. The Acute and Chronic Effects of Repeated Exposure to United Kingdom Red Phosphorus Screening Smokes in Rats, Mice, Guinea Pigs, and Rabbits.


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