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B: Summary of Doses and Concentrations of Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Particles from the Army's Dispersion Tests
Pages 122-294

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From page 123...
... "Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Testing Documents," which listed all known Army-sponsored ZnCdS tests. All reference numbers herein refer to the list for this appendix.
From page 124...
... ; Test material; Place of release; Communities that were affected by measurable concentrations of trac / Date of releases; Time of day of releases; Period of time during which releases occurred; Distance of releases to affected communities; A summary of weather conditions during the releases; Total quantities of ZnCdS released; Total quantities of any other materials co-released; Maximum time-integrated concentration (microgram-minutes per cubic meter) due to each release; Maximum time-integrated concentration due to each release in any populated area; Maximum concentrations during the releases; Maximum concentrations during the releases in any populated area; Other comments.
From page 125...
... Exposure The time integral of the instantaneous concentration of ZnCdS at a single point of measurement, reported in microgram-minutes per cubic meter. All the documents examined use the nomenclature "close" to represent the time-integral of the concentration measured in particles of ZnCcIS per unit volume (usually measured as particle-minutes per liter)
From page 126...
... Some of the abbreviations used in the following summaries are ppg particles per gram MMD mass mean diameter QR quarterly report BMR bimonthly report Conc. QR joint quarterly report Max.
From page 129...
... To give an idea of the variation, the table includes (for the non-Dugway releases) some order of magnitude estimates for the areas affected within approximately an order of magnitude of the maximum concentrations or exposures reported.
From page 130...
... Louis, and 390 fig in Biltmore Beach.
From page 131...
... The useful particle size range is about 0.5 to 5 ~m, with the lower end limited by the detectability of the particles, and the upper end limited by the rate of fall-out from the air. The typical experiment used particles with a mass mean diameter of ~ to 2 Am, and an effective dispersal rate of around ~ x ~ on particles per gram (ppg)
From page 132...
... The particle count would then be obtained by sampling the aerosol with a fiIter-type sampler. The dispersion efficiency in an experiment is then the ratio of the particles per gram achieved in the experiment to the standardized value.
From page 133...
... METHODS USED IN THIS DOCUMENT TO ESTIMATE EXPOSURES AND CONCENTRATIONS I EXPOSURES All the references examined reported exposures in particle-minutes per liter or gave tabular data of raw particle counts (e.g., particles per fitters.
From page 134...
... For these reasons, the exposure estimates are not considered accurate to better than a factor of two even in the best circum 2The dispersion efficiency depends on the device, the vehicle from which the dispersion is taking place, and other conditions of the dispersion. Some fullscale tests of dispersion efficiency were done for some of the aerial line-source releases, using the vertical grid at Dugway Proving Ground.
From page 135...
... All exposure estimates given in this document correspond as closely as possible to the maximum exposures measured at any given point in any particular experiment. Where there were multiple releases, the exposures due to each release were summed at each measurement point, and the value abstracted here is the maximum of those sums.
From page 136...
... "Unpopulated" areas included Dugway Proving Ground, the middle of a national forest, and the middle of a desert area. Caveats about such interpretations are provided in the individual summaries that follow.
From page 137...
... Combining an assumption of downwind gaussian shape with the measured wind speed then allows an estimate for the peak concentration. · For short releases from point or line sources, a combination of the two previous methods was applied.
From page 138...
... No. 24 Gaussian plume shape, total exposure, measured oy for point sources; total exposure, measured plume speed and duration for line sources.
From page 139...
... . The area so obtained (in square miles)
From page 140...
... ShouIc} be more information available somewhere. Only graphs with some particle concentrations and particle counts.
From page 141...
... Particle-size distributions are given for two lots of 2266: Lot A, mass mean diameter 3 ~m, number median diameter 1.8 ~m, ppg of I.7 x 10~°; and Lot B mass mean diameter 3.2 Am, number median diameter I.4 ~m, ppg of I.4 x 10~° (but distribution unacceptable for tracer technique)
From page 142...
... , and references are given apparently those trials were conducted at Dugway, because the sampling data are included in a report entitled "Data Supplement to DPGTR 227." (Dugway Proving Ground Technical Report)
From page 143...
... Six releases were completed in an afternoon, involving release rates of 2-3 g/min (period not specified) with samplers 700 ft downwind.
From page 144...
... No. 5 Dugway Proving Ground, Oct.
From page 145...
... No. 34 Operation Moby Dick, San Francisco Bay, Calif.
From page 146...
... However, QR 4 is missing, and any quarterly reports beyond QR 7 are also missing (including any final report)
From page 147...
... Field experiments FE 18 through FE 30. Last available QR is Oct.
From page 148...
... San Francisco Bay, Redwood City, Calif. Dugway Proving Ground.
From page 149...
... Field experiments FE 134 through FE 140. Metronics FP efficiency test of Rotorods.
From page 150...
... Field experiments FE 151 through 157.
From page 151...
... WOODLOT. Dugway Proving Ground.
From page 152...
... 4. Trial Reports from Dugway Proving Ground, Relationship of Dosages to Source Strength for BG and an Inert Tracer.24 Feb.
From page 153...
... Army Test and Evaluation Command, Dugway Proving Ground, Utah.
From page 154...
... Army Dugway Proving Ground, Salt Lake City, Utah.
From page 155...
... RDT&E Project TV025001Al28 Meteorological Aspects of CB Program for U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground, Dugway, Utah.
From page 156...
... Frese. Check Test of West Vertical Grid, Dugway Proving Ground, Utah.
From page 157...
... B QR 2, May-June 1950 (tests at Dugway Proving Ground)
From page 158...
... Army Chemical Corps Research and Development Program.
From page 159...
... Union 36:42-53. DESCRIPTION OF TEST Name of test: Comparison of stimulant Decay Rates in Field Tests Reference-list number: 2 Reference: Special Report 273.
From page 160...
... The samplers were Millipore type with a flow rate of 12.5 L/min. Test material: ZnCdS from New Jersey Zinc Company, CEP 8000, Lot 0002 with 2% magnesium silicate.
From page 161...
... Dissemination efficiency has been assumed to be 50% for the bombs, and 100% for the Stanford generators. The highest measured exposures and estimated concentrations occur at the 100 yd sampling line, and these are the values given for "Unpopulated areas." The upper bound for the "Populated area" was obtained from the estimates for the sampling line at greatest distance from which estimates were available, generally i.5 miles from the dissemination point for Phase A, and ~ mile from the sampling point for Phases B and C
From page 162...
... by summing the individual exposures the wind direction was always similar (from the north
From page 163...
... As usual, the "cumulative" maximum concentrations are simply the largest estimated concentrations the trials were assumed to occur at distinct times. The large difference in concentrations between Phase A and Phases B and C is due to the different dissemination mechanisms an instantaneous release versus a continuous release.
From page 164...
... · An operation named Operation DEW IT, involving release of FP and I,ycopodium spores from an aircraft. This is Dugway Special Report 179 ("An Experimental Study of Long Range Aerosol Cloud Travel Involving Ground Deposition of Biological Spore Material," F&MR Division, Camp Detrick, Frederick, Md., ~ June 1953)
From page 165...
... Site selection: Dugway Proving Ground. Number and nomenclature of releases: Two releases: BW 5-52 and BW 6-52.
From page 166...
... Maximum time-integrate(1 concentrations in any populated area: No attempt has been made to estimate concentrations in populated areas. Maximum concentrations: No time-resolved data were available to allow estimation of concentration.
From page 167...
... . Particle counts were given as ~ .96 x ~ 0~° ppg for the last three experiments, and not specified for the first.
From page 168...
... The following estimates of total exposure assume a sampling rate of 6.7 L/min, identical to that in the releases in May and June of 1953. The particles-per-gram count for the first experiment has been assumed to be identical to that for the other three experiments.
From page 169...
... Maximum time-integrated concentrations in any populated area: No attempt has been made to estimate concentrations in populated areas. Maximum concentrations in any populated area: No attempt has been made to estimate concentrations in populated areas.
From page 170...
... Place of release: Dugway west vertical grid. Dates, times, and quantities of release: Test Date Start Time Amount,g BW 8B-7-54 5118/55 17:35 21.2 BW 8B-8-54 5118155 19:24 21.2 Total 42.4 No information on dissemination times is provided.
From page 171...
... BW ~B-7-54: Maximum exposure, ~ 80 ~g-min/m3 BW ~B-~-54: Maximum exposure, 420 lug-min/m3 Maximum concentrations: No time-resolved data, or even release-timing data, were available to allow estimation of concentration. Maximum time-integrated concentrations in any populated area: No attempt has been made to estimate concentrations in populated areas.
From page 172...
... U.S. Army Chemical Corps Biological Laboratories, Camp Detrick, Frederick, Md.
From page 173...
... Trial 3: Along 121 statute miles, starting approximately 173 statute miles from Jacksonville, southward direction of travel. Trial 4: Along 121 statute miles, starting approximately 331 statute miles from Jacksonville, southward direction of travel.
From page 174...
... Trial 2: Approximately 21,800 square miles, covering approximately the southern half of South Carolina and an abutting swathe of east Georgia approximately 25 miles wide at the coast, widening to 75 miles at 150 miles inland. Trial 3: Approximately 13,100 square miles, roughly encompassed by a north-south stripe across the central one-third of South Carolina.
From page 175...
... Coastal clouds dissipated later in the day, with clear inland weather and onshore winds. A wind shift across the weak front apparently resulted in two effective plumes from different parts of the dissemination line.
From page 176...
... The highest cumulative concentration was measured at Hunter Air Force Base, Ga. Maximum concentrations: These concentrations are 2-h averages, as measured in the tests.
From page 177...
... Principal object: Informally: "To study particulate cloud travel under night release conditions on a distance scale intermediate between the LAC operation and the small scale diffusion studies usually performed." Formally: Principal objective: "To describe and determine empirically the relationships between meteorologic forces acting on elevated line sources of particulate aerosols and the resulting quantitative distribution of those particulates at ground level."
From page 178...
... on a TV tower 20 miles southwest of Dallas for Tests 9 through 13, groups of Rotorod samplers at various points on the ground for various tests, and samplers aboard four L-20 aircraft. FP tracer was released from a C-~19 aircraft flying crosswind along the upwind side of the test area, at a height of 600 to 1,300 ft.
From page 179...
... Maximum concentrations: Unavailable in the section of the report obtained.
From page 180...
... Site selection: All four selected sites were required to be in areas where adverse conditions (rain, fog, Tow clouds, extreme wind speeds, variable wind direction) were minimized, and where there were existing roads parallel to the persistent wind direction.
From page 181...
... FP were metered for release at 1.5 Ib/mile over a flight path of 30 miles, yielding a total mass released of 45 Ib per release. Sampling was performed at I-mile intervals along approximately 25 miles in the downwind direction, generally starting a short distance upwind of anticipated initial touchdown point of the plume.
From page 182...
... The line of samplers extended along Route 95 from approximately ~ ~ miles north of Goldfield to approximately ~ ~ miles south of Goldfield. Dates, times, and quantities of release: Test Oklahoma Local time Quantity 1 06104/62 18:13 50 lb (22.7 kg)
From page 183...
... Communities affected: The nearest communities (on current maps) that were potentially most affected were the following: Oklahoma: Cushing, Ripley, Drumright, OiTton, Yale, Jennings, Hallett, Glencoe, Pawnee, and nearby towns, principally those to the north.
From page 184...
... Oklahoma: Tests were conducted in typical summer weather, with southerly flow conditions (wind direction recorded as south two times, southsoutheast four times, and southeast three times) , when turbulence is gen
From page 185...
... Other materials released: No other materials are mentioned in the report. Maximum time-integrated concentrations and maximum concentrations: The report gives the measured cumulative exposure.
From page 186...
... Maximum time-integrated concentrations and maximum concentrations in any populated area: in Oklahoma, Texas, and Washington, the density of communities is high enough in the affected area that it is likely that populated areas experienced concentrations and time-integrated concentrations as high as were
From page 187...
... . Also published in ~ 966 in the Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association CVol.
From page 188...
... Test conditions: Samplers used included 60 Rotorocts, 30 membrane filters, and 10 pulsed drum samplers. A total of 316 sampling sites were used during some or all tests, placed in arcs arounc} the sources at nominal distances of 0.5, 2, and 4.5 miles from Forest Park, and 1.25, 2.5, and 5 miles from the Knights of Columbus Building (see below)
From page 189...
... APPENDIX B I 89 l Time' CST Source Series Test Date Day Begin End Locationa 1 2 05/27/63 Mon 14:10 14:40 A 3 05/28/63 Tue 10:00 11:00 A 2 4 07/19/63 Fri 11:30 12:30 A 5 07/22/63 Mon 11 :00 12:00 B 6 07/23/63 Tue 11:30 12:30 B 7 07/25/63 Thu 10:40 11:40 B ~ 07/26/63 Fri 10:45 11:45 B 3 9 09/12/63 Thu 11:15 12:15 A 10 09/14/63 Sat 10:45 11:45 B 11 09/16/63 Mon 11 :00 12:00 B 12 09/17/63 Tue 20:00 20:30 B 13 09/18/63 Wed 20:00 21:00 B 4 14 04/01/64 Wed 12:00 13:00 B 15 04/06/64 Mon 20:40 21:40 B 16 04/07/64 Tue 20:48 21:48 A 17 04/08/64 Wed 20:30 21:30 A 1 ~ 04/09/64 Thu 20:45 21:45 A 5 19 06/02/64 Tue 10:30 11:30 A 20 06/03/64 Wed 10:40 11:40 A 21 06/04/64 Thu 10:30 11:30 B 22 06/06/64 Sat 11:30 12:30 A 23 06/07/64 Sun 11:30 12:30 A 24 06/09/64 Tue 10:30 11:30 A 25 06/10/64 Wed 10:30 11:30 A 26 06/11/64 Thu 10:30 11:30 B 6 27 10/10/64 Sat 11:30 12:30 B 28 10/11/64 Sun 11:05 12:05 B 29 10/12/64 Mon 20:00 21:00 A 30 10/16/64 Fri 20:00 21:00 B 6 31 10/17/64 Sat 13:15 14:15 A 32 10/19/64 Mon 19:45 20:45 A 33 10/20/64 Tue 19: 15 20: 15 A 34 10/21/64 Wed 19:00 20:00 A 7 35 03/06/65 Sat 12:30 13:30 A 36 03/07/65 Sun 12:30 13:30 A 37 03/08/65 Mon 20:30 21:30 A 38 03/11/65 Thu 20:30 21:30 A
From page 190...
... From the data presented in the paper for Experiment 9, it is possible to infer a release quantity of approximately 24 kg for that experiment, corresponding to the maximum dispersal rate of the two generators available and assuming ~ x 10~° ppg for the release rate. The concentration data presented for Experiments IS and 32 are consistent with a similar release quantity.
From page 191...
... concentrations anywhere. Maximum concentrations: Not computable from information currently available.
From page 192...
... The paper has some graphs of "concentrations" in particles per cubic meter (see "Maximum time-integrated concentrations" and "Maximum concentrations" above) , although the basis for these graphs is not given.
From page 193...
... Site selection: Aerial Spray Grid, locater! ~ ~ miles west of the technical area, Dugway Proving Ground.
From page 194...
... Maximum time-integrated concentrations: The maximum concentrations listed below take account of the efficien
From page 195...
... Maximum concentrations in any populated area: No attempt has been made to estimate concentrations in populated areas. Other comments: This was the third phase of the 508 series of efficiency estimates for FP dissemination.
From page 196...
... , Proj ect 1 T062111 A 128, for the Meteorology Division, Deseret Test Center, Building 103 SoIcliers Circle, Fort Dugway, Utah.
From page 197...
... were exploded in the center of the central microgrid to simulate point sources, and a line of 9 bomblets (some winter tests) spaced at 5-m intervals through the microgrid, perpendicular to the axis of the test array, were used to simulate a line source.
From page 198...
... For tests ~ 03, 206, 208, Me wind was hom the opposite direction, and the release line was 1.6 km southeast of the nearest point of the test array. For tests ~ ~ O and 202, the release line was 4.8 km northwest of the test array.
From page 199...
... . Distances from releases to affected communities: Cass Lake is approximately ~ km from the center of the test array, and so approximately 10.6 km from the release point for the three releases that might have affected it.
From page 200...
... Other materials released: No other materials are mentioned. Maximum concentrations and time-integrated concentrations: Air and ground releases could be distinguished by the different colors of fluorescence of the particles.
From page 201...
... Maximum concentrations and time-integrated concentrations in any populated area: Air and ground releases could be distinguished by the different colors of fluorescence of the particles. Only concentrations from the aerial releases were evaluated.
From page 202...
... Cone., Max. Integrated Area Test ~g/m3 Conc., ~g-min/m3 Affected 102 0.3 10 Federal Dam 103 3 50 Cass Lake 104 0.4 10 Federal Dam 105 0.4 IS Federal Dam 106 0.9 50 Federal Dam 107 0.4 25 Federal Dam 108 0.4 30 Federal Dam 109 0.4 30 Federal Dam 110 0.4 30 Federal Dam 111 0.5 12 Federal Dam 112 0.4 30 Federal Dam 113 l 70 Federal Dam 201 1 140 Federal Dam 202 0.9 l lO Federal Dam 203 1.5 200 FederalDam 204 0.5 70 Federal Dam 205 0.9 190 Federal Dam 206 1.5 80 Cass Lake 207 2.0 300 Federal Dam 208 2.6 160 Cass Lake 209 1.5 110 Federal Dam 210 2.0 100 Federal Dam 211 0.4 30 Federal Dam 212 0.9 55 Federal Dam All 3 290 Cass Lake All 2 1620 Federal Dam Other comments: Table 3-8 in the original, from which the exposure estimates above have been taken, is incorrectly characterized in the report.
From page 203...
... Metronics Associates, 3201 Porter Drive, Stanford Industrial Park, Palo Alto, Calif. Contract DA-42-007
From page 204...
... Army Dugway Proving Ground, Utah.
From page 205...
... C, D Foothill 157 A, B Bayshore Flats Test conditions: These tests were primarily designed to measure efficiencies of equipment, not dispersal characteristics over large areas. At the industrial test site, the field tests were in the vacant building sites, with the sampling station ~ 00 m downwind of the generator.
From page 206...
... There is insufficient detail to locate the test sites. All were apparently in locally deserted or vacant areas out to the distance of the samplers.
From page 207...
... 3.3°/O by weight of the total releases, respectively)
From page 208...
... 170 The 6-s sampling clearly shows the effects of plume waver, even at 200 m from the dispersal point~uring ~ 0 min of continuous dispersion, several peaks in concentration are observed in the record. Maximum concentrations in any populated area: Unknown.
From page 209...
... Army Dugway Proving Ground, Salt Lake City, Utah.
From page 210...
... Within each experiment, four releases were planned, labeled Y1, Y2, G1, and G2, representing two releases each of yellow- and green-fluorescing FP. Test conditions: Releases were from two Piper Apache aircraft flying at less than 240 m altitude perpendicular to the wind direction, upwind of the city, over a 20-mile release line, with a release rate of 2.5 Ib/mile.
From page 211...
... , and the length, altitude, and upwind distance of the release path (distance upwind from the nearest sampling grid line on the upwind edge of the city)
From page 212...
... 2 1 2 TOXICOLOGIC ASSESSMENT OF ZINC CADMIUM SULFIDE Total Relative Relative Upwind Time, Amount, Length, Altitude, Distance, Name Date LST Src kg m m m ~Continued) TRC 64-4 07/29/64 20:45 Y1 20.8 20,124 122 1600 21:30 Y2 21.3 20,275 122 1600 20:52 G 1 22.7 21,230 183 1600 21:35 G2 22.5 22,075 183 1600 TRC 64-5 08/09/64 21:57 Y1 16.4 22,470 126 1600 Y2 Aircraft out of commission G 1 Aircraft out of commission 22:32 G2 21.7 21,490 126 1600 TRC 64-6 08/13/64 20:05 Y1 18.6 22,946 183 1600 21:29 Y2 17.9 24,019 183 1600 20: 10 G 1 20.8 20,620 91 3200 21:34 G2 22.0 21,156 91 3200 TRC 65-1 10/24/65 20:02 Y1 22.7 15,704 214 1600 21:20 Y2 22.7 18,420 244 1600 20:18 G1 22.7 28,807 92 1600 21:35 G2 22.7 35,586 122 1600 TRC 65-2 10/26/65 19:00 Y1 22.3 26,333 183 1600 21:01 Y2 22.8 26,909 183 1600 19:15 G1 22.7 28,539 91 1600
From page 213...
... APPEN DIX Total Relative Relative Upwind Time, Amount, Length, Altitude, Distance, Name Date LST Src kg m m m (Con tin uedJ 21:18 G2 22.8 27,661 91 1600 TRC65-3 11/08/65 19:07 Y1 22.5 26,869 183 3200 20:34 Y2 22.6 26,869 183 3200 19:22 G1 23.2 35,513 91 3200 20:49 G2 22.6 32,924 91 3200 TRC65-5 11/16/65 20:03 Y1 22.0 26,903 91 1600 Y2 Severe turbulence 20:12 G1 22.6 33,213 91 4800 G2 Severe turbulence TRC65-6 11/17/65 Y1 Dispenser mal~nction 20:25 Y2 22.1 23,992 183 1600 18:45 G1 22.5 32,133 91 1600 20:47 G2 22.2 26,387 91 1600 TRC65-7 11/29/65 18:42 Y1 22.5 26,333 183 3200 20:44 Y2 22.8 28,203 183 3200 19:00 G1 22.7 33,400 91 3200 21:00 G2 22.8 30,873 91 3200 TRC65-8 12/05/65 18:30 Y1 22.8 24,536 183 4800 20:00 Y2 22.6 24,791 183 4800 18:45 G1 22.7 15,751 91 4800 20:15 G2 22.7 30,041 91 4800 TRC65-9 12/06/65 18:00 Y1 22.9 25,823 214 3200 19:45 Y2 23.0 26,514 214 3200 18:15 G1 22.9 33,977 122 3200 20:00 G2 23.0 30,464 122 3200 TRC65-10 01/06/66 19:03 Y1 22.2 23,892 122 3200 Y2 Cloud cover, release canceled 19:08 G1 22.4 28,371 122 3200 G2 Cloud cover, release canceled TRC65-11 01/10/66 19:04 Y1 22.3 27,452 122 4800 20:45 Y2 22.5 29,116 122 4800 19:09 G1 22.2 25,602 122 4800 20:50 G2 22.8 28,056 122 4800 TRC65-12 01/13/66 19:00 Y1 22.2 24,831 122 3200 20:30 Y2 24.3 24,844 122 3200 19:05 G1 22.4 26,661 122 3200 20:35 G2 22.4 26,742 122 3200 TRC65-13 01/23/66 18:30 Y1 22.6 24,784 91 3200 Y2 ? Malfunction, dispenser jammeu
From page 214...
... five releases for which no measured quantity is given. Communities affected: The principal community affected was Fort Wayne, Ind., together with other any rural communities within approximately ~ O miles to the northeast.
From page 215...
... Maximum time-integrated concentrations and maximum time-integrated concentrations in any populated area: For this set of experiments, these two concentrations are synonymous. Maximum concentrations were measured on the sample line nearest the releases, so that slightly higher concentrations might have occurred closer to the release lines.
From page 216...
... for the Deseret Test Center, Fort Douglas, Utah.
From page 217...
... Test material: ZnCdS: Green fluorescing, Lot H-396, mass mean diameter 3.2 ~m, 1.45 x 10~° ppg; Yellow fluorescing, loot H-395, mass mean diameter 3.3 ~ ~m, ~ .32 x ~ Go ppg.
From page 218...
... Point boat releases were at locations on this release line, selected so that the plume wouic3 traverse the most dense arrays of samplers. Onshore releases of much smaller quantities of material were from sites near CarIsbad (apparently within a few hundred feet of areas that on current maps show local streets)
From page 219...
... APPENDIX B 2 19 Boat source trials (green FP) : Time, PDT Durat~on, Amount, Trial Date hr:min hr:min:s Type kg 27 07/06~67 17:40 05:00 Point 0.554 28 07/07/67 19:04 05:00 Point 0.472 29 07/08/67 19:04 05:00 Point 0.596 30 07/09/67 17:03 05:00 Point 0.54 31 07/11/67 15:03 05:00 Point 0.611 32 07/12/67 17:06 02:08:20 Line 14.87 35 07/14/67 18:01 02:12:00 Line 15.93 36 07/15/67 16:00 02:14:05 Line 16.49 37 07/16/67 14:00 01:54:30 Line 12.06 38 07/17/67 16:00 01:58:30 Line 13.4 Onshore point-source trials: Time, PDT Amount, Trial Date hr:min Location Color kg ~06/23/67 16:00 San Marcos Y 0.05 2 06/23/67 16:30 San Marcos G 0.05 3 06/23/67 17:35 San Marcos Y 0.05 4 06/23/67 18:21 San Marcos G 0.05 5 06/24/67 18:30 San Marcos Y 0.05 6 06/24/67 18:59 San Marcos G 0.05 7 06/24/67 20:00 San Marcos Y 0.05 ~06/24/67 20:20 San Marcos G 0.05 9 06/26/67 18:05 San Marcos Y 0.05 10 06/26/67 18:45 San Marcos G 0.05 11 06/26/67 19:46 San Marcos Y 0.05 12 06/26/67 20:15 San Marcos G 0.05 13 06/27/67 18:30 Carisbad YG 0.1 14 06/27/67 20:03 Carisbad YG 0.1 15 06/28/67 18:30 Carlsbad YG 0.1 16 06/28/67 20:00 Carlsbad YG 0.1 17 06/29/67 16: 10 Carisbad YG 0.1 1 ~06/29/67 18:00 Carisbad YG 0.1 19 06/29/67 19:46 Carlsbad YG 0.1
From page 220...
... 23 07/01/67 18:00 La Costa YG 0.1 24 07/01/67 20:10 La Costa YG 0.1 25 06/02/67 16:15 La Costa YG 0.1 26 06/02/67 18:01 La Costa YG 0.1 33 07/13/67 18:30 San Marcos Y 0.05 34 07/13/67 20:04 San Marcos G 0.05 61 06/22/67 15:18 San Marcos Y 0.05 62 06/22/67 18:02 San Marcos Y 0.05 51 07/01/67 21:23 La Costa G 0.05 52 07/05/67 15:15 La Costa Y 0.01 53 07/05/67 15:24 La Costa G 0.01 54 07/05/67 16:39 La Costa Y 0.01 55 07/05/67 16:48 La Costa G 0.01 Total release 237 Y = yellow fluorescing; G = green fluorescing; YG = both yellow and green fluorescing (equal quantities)
From page 221...
... Other materials released: No other materials are mentioned. Maximum concentrations and maximum time-integrated concentrations: These concentrations are essentially the same for unpopulated and populated areas.
From page 222...
... 222 TOXICOLOGIC ASSESSMENT OF ZINC CADMIUM SULFIDE 18 275 19 98 20 5 21 22 23 24 25 26 33 34 61 62 51 52 53 54 176 21 9 14 32 11 106 108 537 42 0.5 82 22 10 6 12 NA 5.6 NA 8.8 I.6 6.2 9 1.9 3 NA 2 NA 2 Highest values La Costa 176 108 San Marcos 188 114 Carisbad 694 1741 Offshore aircraft-released lirze source trials 27 7.5 0.2 28 18.5 0.5 29 30 31 32 35 36 37 38 18.5 13.2 6.6 5.1 6.3 19.8 5.3 3.0 6.4 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.4 0.2 1.2
From page 223...
... line-source trials 32 3.8 0.04 35 15.1 0.3 36 2.9 0.2 37 1.6 0.4 38 2.6 0.3 Cumulative 1 49 1.3 The document contains no concentration information directly and contains few of the raw data but does report the maximum exposures (time integral of concentration data) given here.
From page 224...
... Only condensed results are given, although it is claimed that the maximum exposures were for individual points. The CarIsbad onshore point-source location is within a few hundred feet of local streets on current maps.
From page 225...
... . Principal object: To determine the general features of mass and momentum transport at a forest border interface and simultaneously study the dispersion of small particulates into and within a forest canopy from a clear-cut area in relation to meteorologic conditions.
From page 226...
... Place of release: Releases were generally within the sampling grid, or within 30 m of the sampling grid. One release was 80 m from the edge of the grid.
From page 227...
... APPENDIX B 227 Dates, times, and quantities of release: Run Release Date Time Methoda Total mass," Main grid releases 1 1 10/15/68 16:42 F F could not 2 10/15/68 17:02 F be estimated 3 10/16/68 12:55 Dyes only F could not 4 10/16/68 13:00 G be estimated 2 1 05/02/69 16:00 A 83 2 05/02/69 19: 19 A 83 3 05/03/69 07:59 A 83 4 05/03/69 09:40 A& D 85 5 05/03/69 11:52 D 89 6 05/03/69 13:45 D 89 3 1 07/08/69 05:53 P 90 2 07/08/69 10:18 P 90 3 07/08/69 13:52 P 90 4 07/08/69 16:10 P 90 5 07/08/69 20:37 P 90 6 07/08/69 22:20 P 90 7 08/08/69 09:52 P 90 4 1 08/26/69 00:14 P 90 2 08/26/69 10:44 P 90 3 08/26/69 13:14 P 90 4 08/26/69 09:44 P 90 5 08/26/69 12:12 P 90 6 08/26/69 15:45 P 90 Microgrid releases 1 1 07/31/69 16:20 Spores only 2 1 08/14/69 15:40 A 0.7 2 08/14/69 16:35 A 0.9 3 1 08/29/69 11:56 A 0.9 2 08/29/69 12:41 A 0.9 3 08/29/69 15:17 A 0.9 4 1 09/04/69 17:30 A 0.9 2 09/04/69 22:49 A 0.9 3 09/05/69 09:31 A 0.8 4 09/05/69 11:41 A 0.9 Total release 1700 aDissemination methods: F = firecracker, G = generator, A = atomizer, D = dry particle sprayer, P = pressure release (see "Test conditions" above)
From page 228...
... . The plumes were small and dissipated rapidly, sometimes to unmeasurably low exposures within the 240 m of the grid in even the downwind direction.
From page 229...
... for U.S. Army Deseret Test Center, Fort Douglas, Utah.
From page 230...
... The main sampling grid consisted of three circular arrays of Rotorod samplers at ~00 m radius (every ~0 degrees of arc) , 200 m and 400 m radius (every 5 degrees of arc)
From page 231...
... APPEND;X B 23 1 Dates, times, ant! quantities of release: Trial 2 3 4 5 6 8 0 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 Date 08/01/69 08/04/69 08/06/69 08/06/69 08/07/69 08/07/69 08/07/69 08/07/69 08/08/69 08/08/69 08/11/69 08/11/69 08/12/69 08/12/69 08/13/69 08/13/69 08/14/69 08/14/69 08/14/69 08/14/69 08/18/69 08/18/69 08/19/69 08/19/69 08/21/69 08/21/69 08/22/69 08/22/69 08/25/69 11:00 08/25/69 08/26/69 08/26/69 08/26/69 08/27/69 08/27/69 08/27/69 08/27/69 08/28/69 08/28/69 Time 16:51 11:22 11:00 12:45 10:44 12:20 15:38 18:01 21.6 09:20 4.1 10:52 1 1:15 14:45 14:15 15:46 08:20 10:05 08:55 10:35 12:15 13:54 Mass Release, g Yellow Green 35 11 8 5 5 8 9 7.2 6.2 11 17.6 24.9 7.7 2.4 10.2 8.3 10 13.1 11.5 10.7 10.7 13.8 9.6 12.9 12.9 14 15.8 4.3 7.2 9.9 21 10.2 10.6 9.9 9 11.7 9.7 8.3 10.1 14.7 4.8 13.7 8.1 8 6.4 7.6 9.3 5.2 0.8 4.8 2.7 11.1 10 8.6 10.6 10 8.5 11:40 8.5 15:35 7.5 11:05 7.3 13:00 11.4 09:35 12.2 11:25 8.4 09:20 7.9 10:45 8.5 7.5 6.5 11.8 10.2 12 7.9 9.1 8.5 12.7 8.1 10.2
From page 232...
... 232 TOXICOLOGIC ASSESSMENT OF ZINC CADMIUM S _ (Contir~ued) 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 Trial Date 40 08/28/69 41 09/04/69 42 09/04/69 43 09/05/69 44 09/05/69 09/08/69 09/08/69 09/09/69 09/09/69 11:50 09/10/69 08:36 09/10/69 10:17 09/10/69 12:31 09/10/69 09/10/69 09/10/69 09/11/69 09/16/69 09/16/69 09/16/69 09/16/69 09/17/69 09/17/69 09/17/69 09/17/69 09/17/69 09/18/69 09/18/69 09/19/69 09/19/69 09/20/69 09/22/69 09/22/69 09/23/69 09/23/69 09/23/69 09/23/69 09/24/69 09/24/69 09/24/69 09/25/69 Time 15:34 16:10 17:56 09:05 10:43 10:49 12:37 10:40 Mass Release, g Yellow Green 10 10 10 9.3 9.5 10 14:00 15:56 17:15 08:59 12:35 14:35 16:30 18:00 10:40 8.5 12:10 10.5 11.6 8.5 9.2 10.1 14:30 15:45 17:45 16:30 18:15 9.5 07:05 8.9 08:45 6.1 10:18 6.3 15:55 13.6 17:30 14.2 08:30 10:00 16:15 18:00 15:15 16:30 18:00 11:01 6.8 14.5 8.1 9.4 10.4 5.1 10 5.6 8.9 8.8 10.3 9.6 6.8 12.9 13.7 10.6 11.2 13.1 8.6 8.5 9.9 5.1 10.7 4.7 12 8.9 7.5 13 10 11 11 12.9 10 11.2 8.7 10.3 9.1 12.6 20.8 12.7 9.8 14.2 10.1 9.9 12.3 7.9 18.2 20.6 7.2 21.3 18.3 18.5 15.6 20.5 17.7 22.5 19.3 17.9 23.3
From page 233...
... APPENDIX B 233 (Con tin redo Trial Date 80 09/25/69 81 09/29/69 82 09/29/69 83 09/30/69 84 09/30/69 11:45 85 10/01/69 10:30 86 10/01/69 10:30 87 10/03/69 15:30 88 10/03/69 17:00 89 10/04/69 11:55 90 10/04/69 13:04 91 10/06/69 16:30 92 10/06/69 18:00 93 10/07/69 08:20 94 10/07/69 10:00 95 10/15/69 16:00 96 10/15/69 15:05 97 10/23/69 98 10/24/69 99 10/27/69 100 10/28/69 101 10/28/69 102 10/28/69 103 10/29/69 104 10/30/69 105 10/06/69 106 10/10/69 107 10/11/69 108 10/13/69 109 10/19/69 110 10/20/69 111 10/20/69 112 10/29/69 113 10/29/69 114 10/29/69 115 10/24/69 Total release Mass Release, g Time Yellow Green 12:30 14:15 15:45 10:03 10.8 12.2 10.1 11.8 11.2 13.2 11.2 9.8 8.3 14.9 8.9 10.2 11.6 10.6 5.3 10.4 10 o o 15:10 9.3 10:00 6.5 14:50 8.7 16:00 6.2 15:15 7.7 14:00 15:17 15:30 11:20 11.1 11.2 6.4 10.7 o o 14:55 9.7 15:45 8.6 11:30 9 14:45 9.6 16:30 9.2 11:45 24.4 19.5 20.8 20.7 21.8 20.6 23.8 19 18.4 19.2 18.9 19.4 19.4 19.6 21.5 21.6 19 19.3 o o 20.4 28.5 25.7 19 23.4 20.4 18.1 18.8 19.8 o o 22.9 19.6 20.5 20.7 21.9 36.2 2701
From page 234...
... However, Me summary information indicates that the measured exposure averaged over all analyzable trials was decreasing as the inverse 3.02 power of distance from the release point for near-groundleve} releases over the range 100 to 400 m distance. Extrapolating the empirical equation given in the document to a distance of ~ km indicates a maximum integrated concentration from all releases (if the wind had been in the same direction all the time)
From page 235...
... Dugway Proving Ground Report, BW Assessment Directorate, Project Order 0016.
From page 236...
... The release efficiency was not stated, and is assumed to be ~ 00%, so that the aerosol produced had a particle count of 4.5 ~ x ~ 0~° PPg. Place of release: Dugway West Vertical Grid.
From page 237...
... Maximum concentrations in any populated area: No attempt has been made to estimate concentrations in populated areas. Other comments: DPGR 175 is said to deal with the first of a series of tests.
From page 238...
... U.S. Army Chemical Corps Biological Laboratories, Camp Detrick, Frederick, Md.
From page 239...
... . Test material: ZnCdS, Lot C P5378 from the New Jersey Zinc Company, mass median diameter 2.25 ~m, particle count 3 x 10~° ppg.
From page 240...
... Length of time for the release, and wind speed and direction are given to assist interpretation of the concentration information given below. No measurements were obtained for Trial 5, when the wind veered steadily.
From page 241...
... . WHITEHORSE: Current maps place the community of Biltmore Beach at the center of the sampling line for these trials.
From page 242...
... was co-released with the FP, using separate Stanford generators. Maximum time-integrated concentrations and maximum concentrations: These have been estimated by assuming an effective dispersion of 5 x ~ 09 ppg for SELTZER, and ~ x 10~° ppg for WHITEHORSE.
From page 243...
... If that part of the coast was populated in 1953, then these exposures correspond roughly to population exposures also. No measurements were taken during the abortive trials, but they were abortive because of wind shifts.
From page 244...
... Army Chemical Corps Research and Develop ment Command, U.S. Army Chemical Corps Proving Ground, Dugway, Utah.
From page 245...
... Maximum time-integrated concentrations in any populated area: No data are given. Maximum concentrations: No data are given.
From page 246...
... Frese. Check Test of West Vertical Grid, Dugway Proving Ground, Utah.
From page 247...
... Test material: FP, particle count of 4. ~ 6 x ~ on ppg Place of release: West Vertical Grid, Dugway Proving Ground.
From page 248...
... Trial 2 3 4 6 Exp., ~g-min/m3 24,402 29,887 23,166 30,218 16,539 12,864 Cumulative <137,000 The cumulative total given here as an upper bound is the sum of the maximum exposures listed. Because the West Vertical Grid was rotated to align it with the wind and no details were provided on wind directions, an accurate cumulative value cannot be obtained.
From page 249...
... to U.S. Army Chemical Corps, Dugway Proving Ground.
From page 250...
... Maximum concentrations: No further data available.
From page 251...
... Reference: Behavior of Aerosol Clouds within Cities. Joint quarterly reports submitted by Stanford University and the Ralph M
From page 252...
... Tests were carried out in all three cities. Within the cities, approximately ~ mile square test sites were selected on the basis of physical and meteorologic characteristics to represent types of areas within the city.
From page 253...
... , with releases indicated by appended letters (a, 6, c .
From page 254...
... There is no discussion within the available documents on the particle-size distribution, particle count, or dissemination efficiency.
From page 255...
... Place of release: Point sources were located at different locations within the test area for each test, and the sampling grid was changed for each test. Line sources were usually along one side of the test area (so that the sampling grid would be affected)
From page 256...
... 256 to ._ Cal en CL C)
From page 257...
... 257 I:: o ._ CC ~ o o ~ ~ Cal EM o C~ ~ C,)
From page 258...
... 258 o ._ en ~ CC AD r ~ 3_ C)
From page 259...
... 259 o ._ tC s o ells CD ~A O O O ~ ~o ~ Cal ~ ~ ~ 00 On ~- )
From page 260...
... 260 o ._ Cal sly 4 C˘ ~ ~ =5 A o ~ ;^ ec U
From page 261...
... 26 1 o ._ en s o o CC AD AO O ~ oo o o o ~ ;^ in,is, _4 _ U)
From page 262...
... 262 lo)
From page 263...
... 263 ~ ^ o ~ ._ ~ en ~ C.)
From page 264...
... 264 .o i_ Cal ~ ~ C.)
From page 265...
... for point and line sources depend very strongly on the distance from the source to the sampling point. The con centrations and exposures given in the following table vary substantially because of the varying distances to the nearest sampler.
From page 266...
... . Additional line-source tests principally affected the areas close to the line sources, but potentially could affect the whole test area.
From page 267...
... Concentrations were estimated for point sources by using the maximum measured exposure and clividing by the release period. The same approach was taken for the line and citywide sources, because some timeresolved data indicated that the plume was present for approximately the release period even in these cases, although it is likely that points close to the release lines experienced shorter immersion in higher concentration plumes (the line source consisted of a release at a constant rate from the back of a moving vehicle)
From page 268...
... because most of the exposure data have been estimated Tom plotted but barely readable exposure isopleths. Minneapolis Cumulative Cumulative Highest Highest Highest Highest Exp., Cone., Exp.
From page 269...
... APPENDIX B 269 (Continued) Cumulative Cumulative Highest Highest Highest Highest Exp., Cone., Exp.
From page 270...
... 270 TOXICOLOGIC ASSESSMENT OF ZINC CADMIUM SULFIDE (Continued) Cumulative Cumulative Highest Highest Highest Highest Exp., Cone., Exp.
From page 271...
... Exp.(Area) Test ,ccg-min/m3 ~g/m3 ~g-min/m3 ~g-min/m3 FT0034b FT0034c FT0035a 333 33 FT0035b 333 33 667 FT0036a FT0036b 17 3 33 FT0037a 100 20 FT0037b 67 13 167 FT0038a 167 17 FT0038b 250 25 417 Maximum unpopulated 1087 17188 Maximum populated 304 2615 St.
From page 272...
... 72 TOXICOLOGIC ASSESSMENT OF ZINC CADMIUM SULFIDE . (Continued)
From page 273...
... Exp.(Area) Test ,ug-min/m3 ~g/m3 ~g-min/m3 ~g-min/m3 FT2004a 5000 1000 FT2004b 5000 FT2005a 100 11 FT2005b 1253 251 1253 FT2005c 83 8 183 FT2006a 67 10 FT2006b 27 5 27 FT2006c 100 13 167 FT2007a FT2007b FT2008a 83 19 FT2008b 83 17 FT2008c 233 47 400 FT2009a 67 5 FT2009b 33 2 100 FT2010a 100 13 FT201Ob 100 20 100 FT2010c 100 FT201la 67 13 67 FT2011b 117 9 117 FT2012a 50 10 FT2012b 7 1 57 FT2013a 67 13 FT2013b 67 5 67 FT2013c 667 133 733 FT2014a 17 1 FT2014b 33 Maximum unpopulated 133 917 Maximum populated 1000 5583 Other comments: The cooperation of city officials was sought at meetings in St.
From page 274...
... There was considerable public interest when Forest Park had to be used as a wiresonde site (for the meteorologic surveys) , but no incidents of consequence were noted.
From page 275...
... Some weekend tests were performed during the day, usually the early afternoon. in the winter tests in Minneapolis, analysis of samplers located inside and outside the Clinton School during ~ 2 releases and in five houses in which penetration studies were conducted during seven releases gave the results shown in Table B-2.
From page 276...
... 13 Extreme range (onto) 0-58 0-200 0-41 0-200 Basement First Floor 13 Second Floor GROSS Clinton School Ground Floor First Floor Second Floor GROSS 19 10 42 36 13 22 71 11 2 11.5 23.5 27 22.5 23 0-100 11-43 0-100 0-100 TABLE B-3 Penetration into Office Buildings in Minneapolis in Winter Inside Doses Relative to Outside Doses at the Same Height Relative Doses Height Range Number of Interquartile Extreme (Floors)
From page 277...
... 10-57 Extreme Range (%) 0-150 0-130 22 51-100 21 36 22-50 0-91 101 -200 10 52 31 -226 0-540 GROSS 125 31 11-57 0-540 Basement doses were compared with ground-level outside doses.
From page 278...
... A final administrative and operational report was to be published by the Ralph M Parsons Company, giving an enumeration of all field tests, but it is not available for this report.
From page 279...
... releases into an air chamber, and "field work of a minor nature." Principal object: This was the first of a contemplated series, with general objectives: to demonstrate the feasibility of use of the fluorescent method, and the capability of detecting a few I-5 Em particles per liter; to demonstrate the suitability of available equipment; to correlate meteorologic measurements with observations of aerosol travel; to determine the lateral diffusion rate of aerosol clouds; to determine optimum distribution of sampling stations; and to demonstrate long-range travel of aerosol clouds.
From page 280...
... Test material: ZnCdS, New Jersey Zinc Company, No.
From page 281...
... With a release time of ~ 65 s, this measurement corresponds to an average concentration of 2 ,ug/m3- an upper bound on the exposure of any community. Other comments: These reports document the genesis of the FP tracer technique using ZnCdS.
From page 282...
... B QR 2, May-June 1950 (tests at Dugway Proving Ground)
From page 283...
... In FE ~ 6, a membrane fitter was operated 6 yd from the release line. Dugway (Note: The locations of the following named features were not identified because of the lack of the accompanying explanatory charts.
From page 284...
... in every case, the release lines were traversed in approximately 30 min. There were 43 sampling stations, ~ O of which were equipped with drum samplers giving 1-min resolution.
From page 285...
... , the particle count is given as 3 x 10'° ppg, although this count appears to be based on art estimated mass mean diameter of about 2.5 ~m. In QR 3 (San Francisco)
From page 286...
... "This is the first time at Dugway that any airborne material has been sampled more than a mile or two from its point of release, and is even more noteworthy in view of the fact that the test was run during the clay when conditions were least favorable for long distance travel." FE 26-30: Aerosols were generated 2 to 10 miles west of San Francisco, on a course approximately parallel to the shore. Weather conditions:
From page 287...
... FE 22-24: Performed during the day under strong lapse conditions, with the wind from the south to southwest. During FE 23, sand and thunder storms were encountered along the release line.
From page 288...
... The maximum concentrations, where available, are from 1-min resolution drum samplers. For each experiment over San Francisco, the highest measured 1-min concentration has been increased in proportion to the total exposure (i.e., the highest measured I-min concentration at any drum sampler has been multiplied by the ratio of highest total exposure measured anywhere to the total exposure measured by that drum sampler)
From page 289...
... APPENDIX B 289 fCon~inued) FE 22 23 24 25 Cumulative San Francisco 26 27 28 29 30 17.3 4.2 410.3 13.9 18.9 Cumulative 436 Other comments: Populated Area Unpopulated Area Max.
From page 290...
... 1963. Principal object: To investigate and define the collection efficiency of the FP collector rod for the Rotorod sampler with the coating technique as employed at Dugway Proving Ground.
From page 291...
... Test material: Various types of FP were used. Abbreviations are MMD mass mean diameter Manf NIZ = New Jersey Zinc Company; USRC = U.S.
From page 292...
... Distances from releases to affected communities: Releases were within the community. Weather conditions: Wind speeds generally in the range ~ to 14 mph, although a few trials were conducted with wind speeds as low as 3 mph, and a few others in winds as high as ~ ~ mph.
From page 293...
... Maximum concentrations in any populated area: No time-resolved data were available for estimating concentrations. Other comments: This contract was to improve the efficiency estimate for the Rotorod as used at Dugway.
From page 294...
... All the tracers listed above "have been used as tracers in atmospheric diffusion studies." H3 24-2 and DPG 12-21 have been "used extensively at Dugway."


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