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Conclusions and Recommendations
Pages 94-99

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From page 94...
... To address this charge, the subcommittee reviewed the available toxicity data on ZnCdS and cadmium compounds, the input from the public concerning the health problems they reported, and exposure data to determine whether exposure to ZnCdS was related to any health effects in the exposed persons. The subcommittee also quantified the risk of potential health effects of ZnCdS exposures.
From page 95...
... The subcommittee recommends that when the results of the research become available, they be reviewed by experts outside the Army to determine whether the subcomm~ttee's conclusions are still valid or should be modified. TOXICITY AND RELATED DATA ON SELECTED CADMIUM COMPOUNDS Because the toxicity of ZnCdS is largely unknown, the subcommittee examined the toxicity and related data on the most-tox~c component of ZnCdS, cadmium CdS, an insoluble cadmium compound, for noncancer health effects and all cadmium compounds for cancer.
From page 96...
... Inhaled cadmium has been shown in occupational studies and laboratory studies of animals to cause lung cancer but not cancer at other body sites. Cadmium exposures associated with increased lung-cancer risk in human and animal studies were to much higher concentrations for longer periods and involved more biologically soluble compounds than the exposures to cadmium from ZnCdS in the Army's testing program.
From page 97...
... Rats exposed to CdS at 39,600 mg-min/m3 had only a mild pulmonary response. Using that result and dividing by 10 to extrapolate from a lowest-observedadverse-effect level to a no-observed-adverse-effect level by 10 to extrapolate from animal to human exposures, and by 10 to account for sensitive populations, one would not expect adverse noncancer health effects, even in sensitive populations, Tom exposure to cadmium in an insoluble form, such as CdS, at 39.6 mg-min/m3 or 39,600 ,ug-min/r3, or cadmium at 30,900 ~g-min/m3 (39,600 x 0.78 = 30 900 u~-min/m31 or 513 11~ c)
From page 98...
... Various study designs were considered in light of the information presented by members of the public attending the public hearings. The subcommittee has concluded that there are three major barriers to carding out an epidemiologic study of the health effects of ZnCdS: lack of complete and accurate exposure data on individuals; inadequacies in data on health outcomes before, during, and after the periods of exposure; and, because of the low exposures, the requirement of a huge sample to detect any small increase in adverse health effects.
From page 99...
... This research wall strengthen the database needed for risk assessment of ZnCdS and lessen the need to rely on the use of cadmium or cadmium compounds as surrogates for toxicity information.

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