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2 Education and Training
Pages 36-62

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From page 36...
... Graduate education in the United States has become a mecca for foreign students who want to advance beyond what their own country pro iSee, for example, Third International Mathematics and Science Study, 1997, Science Achievement in the Middle School Years: IEA's Third International Mathematics and Science Study, Boston College, Boston, Mass.
From page 37...
... The latter tend to be favored by fast-tracking in the Navy's promotion process because they are more visible, making personal contact with active Navy officer superiors who then may tend to advocate their subsequent advancement. Viewed in this light, the extended time spent in serious graduate study, even in fields of critical interest to the Navy, frequently inhibits promotion and advancement compared to those who do not
From page 38...
... It is perfectly true that the Navy can and does operate without more of these individuals, and in that sense, it does not need more of them. Nevertheless, technically literate personnel, who are able to recognize which of the new civilian technologies will make a difference in future warfighting capabilities and readiness, could enable the Navy and Marine Corps to field more effective fighting units.
From page 39...
... Downsizing has inhibited the renewal and innovation that come from the ability to hire a stream of intelligent, highly motivated young people from whom future laboratory leaders can be selected. To meet the human performance needs of naval operations in an increasingly technology-intensive environment, the Department of the Navy will have to do the following: · Increase significantly the proportion of naval force officers who obtain bachelor's degrees in science, mathematics, or engineering.
From page 40...
... Success in modernizing Navy and Marine Corps capabilities and operations will be of less value if it is not accompanied by success in modernizing the conduct of training as well. Military training can be described in terms of who is being trained (individuals or groups)
From page 41...
... A1though the magnitude of resources allocated to these latter activities is not regularly reported and is difficult to determine, it would probably increase the $5.3 billion cost estimated for Navy Department training by a factor of two or three. TRAINING CHALLENGES Many commentators have discussed current trends that increase the challenges to the successful conduct of military training.
From page 43...
... The demand for people trained to hold jobs that are classified as technical or highly technical continues to increase in the Navy and Marine Corps. · The quantity and variety of military systems along with the pace of their introduction have substantially increased the demands on military training to provide the people needed to operate and maintain these systems.
From page 44...
... Research suggests that the difference between those taught in classroom groups of 30 and those taught one-on-one by an individual instructor providing individualized instruction may be as great as 2 standard deviations in achievement.3 However, individual, one-on-one tutoring is prohibitively expensive. In military training as in civilian education, the provision of a single instructor for every student is an instructional necessity and an economic impossibility.
From page 45...
... to placebo treatments in which no instructional material was presented. The average effect size for these studies was 1.38, suggesting an average improvement in student achievement due to the presence of this technology from 50th to 92nd percentile performance.
From page 46...
... Technology Improves Instructional Effectiveness The conclusion that technology improves instructional effectiveness concerns the more common issue of determining whether or not the application of technology allows us to do any better than we can do without it. A typical study that addresses this issue compares an approach using technology, such as computer-based instruction or interactive multimedia instruction, with what might be termed conventional instruction, which uses platform lectures, text-based materials perhaps including programmed text, and/or laboratory hands-on experience with real equipment.
From page 47...
... 1990. The Electiveness of Interactive Videodisc Instruction in Defense Training and Education, IDA Paper P-2372, Institute for Defense Analyses, Alexandria, Va., p.
From page 48...
... 1995 The Interactive Multisensor Analysis Training (IMAT) System: An Evaluation in Operator and Tactician Training, NPRDC Technical Report TR-96-3, Navy Personnel Research and Development Center, San Diego, Calif.
From page 49...
... In these cases, the lower the ratio, the relatively less costly is the approach using instructional technology. Cost ratios are available for studies comparing initial investment costs and operating and support costs.
From page 50...
... In general, the cost argument for technology-assisted approaches is particularly strong when a $2,500 general-purpose computer providing tutorial simulations can be used to achieve instructional objectives for operating, maintaining, or using real equipment costing one to three times as much. The substitution of two-dimensional computer-based simulations for experience with real equipment often turns out to be more rather than less effective than expected.
From page 51...
... About 620,300 Navy and Marine Corps personnel are expected to enter some form of specialized skill training in FY 1997, creating a training load of about 34,700 that will cost the Department of the Navy about $2,098 million. Indirect costs for specialized skill training are more difficult to establish.
From page 52...
... Cost Category Navy Marine CorpsTotal Operations and maintenancea $218.7 $ 26.6$ 245.3 Active component student pay and allowancesb 523.8 210.3734.1 Base training supports 164.8 Direct training supportd 46.6 Reserve pay and allowancese 55.1 Temporary duty costs f 314.6 Total $1,560.5 aGiven by the FY 1997 MMTR, these costs are expected to vary with student time in specialized skill training. bEarlier MMTR data and a recommendation from the Defense Training and Performance Data Center suggest that about 35 percent of total Navy Department specialized skill training costs (Table 2.2 gives the estimated FY 1997 total)
From page 53...
... Percent Training Load Covered Percent Time Saved 20 40 60 80 20 31 62 93 123 30 46 93 139 185 40 62 123 185 247 53 affected by the introduction of training technology and that different estimates for the amount of time to be saved should also be taken into account. As shown in Tables 2.6 and 2.7, the cost avoidances that may result from the introduction of technology and reduction in the time needed by Navy and Marine Corps personnel to complete specialized skill training range from $63 million (costs avoided for both direct training resources and pay and allowances combined by reducing time to train by 20 percent for 20 percent of the student load)
From page 54...
... Because of its capacity for privacy, technology-based training in individual technical matters may well appeal to these officer-executives. However, the new forms of technology-based training that involve linked simulations and can include force-on-force operations with levels of verisimilitude that seem to increase daily offer great promise in preparing flag and general officers for the operational environments of the future.
From page 55...
... There is little reason to deny their benefits to our most senior decision makers. TRAINING MODERNIZATION If the modernization of Navy and Marine Corps training through technology is likely, it may be worthwhile to speculate on the forms this modernization might take.
From page 56...
... Authoring system interoperability will permit interactive courseware written using one authoring system on one suite of equipment to be freely modified using another authoring system and another suite of equipment. Development of aids for instructional delivery will provide everyone with a so-called Ph.D.
From page 57...
... A natural application of technology-based training is in specialized skill areas. If 20 percent of Navy and Marine Corps specialized training students were to use technology-based training to reduce training time by about 20 percent, the savings in training costs and student pay and allowances would amount to many millions of dollars per year.
From page 58...
... 58 of Cal ·_4 a' ·_' Cal ˘ a' o a' C)
From page 60...
... 60 a' 3 a' Cq sit o a' .= C)
From page 61...
... Outsourcing cannot be applied universally in Navy and Marine Corps training, but it can produce significant economies in obvious areas such as specialized skill training or the delivery of education and training that is already available from community colleges and trade schools. Finally, the Department of the Navy could join with other federal agencies and the private sector to leverage the development of performance and certification standards for jobs and occupational areas of common interest and to establish technical standards for the reusability, portability, and interoperability of technology-based courseware.
From page 62...
... Thus, an investment must be made in research into the nature and technological implications of human interactions within shared virtual environments. The movement of training closer to the time of its utilization will also characterize the future training of naval forces.


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