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Pages 75-80

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From page 75...
... From % To ~ Size (r) From Z To % Accepts ideas .28 36% 64% -- am_ ___ Asks questions .17 41% 59: .24 382 62: Correc Live feedback .24 38% 62: ~ Distance .20 40Z 60% .45 28: 72% Encourages .09 46X 54% .41 30% 70: Eye contact .11 44% 56% .32 34: 66% Gestures -.04 52% 48% .31 35: 66% Input .26 37% 63% .33 33% 67: Interaction duration .17 41% 59% .46 27: 73% Interaction frequency .21 40% 60% .21 39% 61% Negative climate .29 36: 64% .36 32% 68Z Nods .20 40: 60Z - -- - -- Off-task behavior .19 40: 60% .43 29% 71% Positive climate .21 39% 61% .40 30: 70% Praise .12 44: 56X .12 44% 56: Smiles .12 44% 56% .29 351 65: Speech rate .04 48% 52% .48 26% 74Z Wait time -- - -- - -- - .18 41% 59% NOTE: A positive ef feet size means that the result was in the predicted direction (more positive behaviors shown toward high expectancy students)
From page 76...
... x w tn X B :, C P "s P ~ (D t P w ~ P 0
From page 77...
... 1 3 8 8 t tes t of mean Z 3.23 .0 7 7 9 Correlation between h and Z .86 -.0 5 Correlation between h and raw i 98 -.1 0 Number of studies with mean Z = 0.00 -.2 required to bring combined results -.3 2 to ~ > .05 423 -.4 0 * Confidence Interval s -.6 f _ t -.7 80% .17 .39 -.8 95X .11 .45 -.9 3 99% .04 .
From page 78...
... 78 TABLE 4 Proportion of Studies Reaching Critical Levels of Significance for Two Research Areas Expected Expectancy Gansfeld Interval for Z Proportion Researcha Research Difference . Unpredicted Direction -1.65 and below .05 .03 .07 +.04 __ Significant -1.64 to +1.64 .90 .60 .50 -.10 Predicted Direction _ +1.65 and above .05 .36 .43 +.07 3 ..
From page 79...
... .23 . 32 Omitting Sargent (N=9)
From page 80...
... .2g .~7 .~3 .~3 .~4 N of studies on which our analysis is based 6 8 60 20 28 Approximate number of studies in population 30 15 100 2300 28 Exogenous Factors Random assignment no yes yes yes yes Es blind to condition no rarely no rarely yes Adequate comparison groups or values no yes sometimes sometimes yes Mean length of inter- 32 1 hr 9.4 ses action per study hours signs Endogenous Factors 26 30 days trials Self-expectancies important? yes no yes yes maybe Climate of E/S very warm/ neutral thera- neutral interaction warm therapeutic peutic Overall quality rating _ ~ 10 very poor fair fair 9 13 19 good very good "Residual' effect size .00 .16 .18 .10 .09


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