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1 Interpersonal Expectancy Effects
Pages 1-5

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From page 1...
... The paper advances in three steps: First, we describe the methodological, theoretical, and empirical issues relevant to the study of expectancy effects, including how expectancy effects are mediated. Second, we describe each of several types of human performance research and speculate on the extent to which expectancy effects may be responsible for the experimental results.
From page 2...
... In other words, experimenters may obtain the results they predicted not because the relationship exists as predicted in the real world but because the experimenters expected the subjects to behave as they did. Evidence for Interpersonal Expectancy Effects Although originally fraught with controversy, the existence of interpersonal expectancy effects is no longer in serious doubt.
From page 3...
... There were eight categories of expectancy studies: reaction time experiments, inkblot tests, animal learning, laboratory interviews, psychophysical judgments, learning and ability, person perception, and everyday situations or field studies. Although effect sizes Wearied across categories, the importance of expectancy effects within each category was firmly established.
From page 4...
... This method, which will be described in detail later, allows the direct comparison of the magnitudes of the effects due to the phenomenon and effects due to expectancies. Another approach, perhaps even richer theoretical ly, is to examine directly the processes underlying expectancy effects as they occur in various areas.
From page 5...
... Both these aspects are critical in understanding expectancy mediation, for even if we could show an enormous effect of expectancy on expecter behavior (e.g., teachers smile more at high expectancy students) , that behavior would not be important in expectancy mediation unless it actually impacted on the expectee to create better outcomes (e.g., being smiled at leads to better grades)

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