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4 Designing Policy Instruments and Institutions to Address Energy-Related Environmental Problems
Pages 21-24

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From page 21...
... We also believe, however, that it should be supplemented by work focusing on questions of institutional design, including design of policy instruments, because institutional issues are critical to mitigation and adaptation in the energy system, essential to policy analysis, and underrepresented in the current research effort. Institutional design issues are critical as well to other important global change issues, such as water management in response to global change and understanding of the rapid increase in nitrogen fixation by human activities.
From page 22...
... commitment to greenhouse gas reduction requires careful analysis of a full range of energy policy options; · the USGCRP is moving ahead with economic analyses of some types of policy instruments, analyses that should be supplemented by institutional studies for greatest practical value; · analysts are increasingly recommending institutional approaches to managing these problems (e.g., creation of emissions trading permit regimes) , making institutional analysis particularly timely; and · growing international communities of researchers who work on marketlike and other institutions for the management of common-pool resources can now be drawn into the analytical effort.
From page 23...
... Examples of instruments to be investigated include: emissions permits or other market-like instruments; price and tax setting; joint, bilateraVmultilateral implementation of agreements; multilateral quantity restrictions; governmental suasion programs; technology demonstrations; dissemination of information; changes in property rights and governance systems; international commissions; markets for contingent claims; full liability for harm, enforced using legal systems; decentralized institutional approaches; educational, legal, and other supports for cultural paradigms affecting personal lifestyles and behavior; and combinations of market-like or other centralized instruments with decentralized, community, and culturally based systems of response.
From page 24...
... and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) manage programs of economic research on global change, they will need to make special efforts to broaden their portfolios to include institutional research and to identify appropriate project managers for institutional studies.

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