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Productivity at Selected Foreign Marine Terminals
Pages 149-184

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From page 149...
... PRODUCTIVITY: WHAT IS THE PRODUCT? Container terminals are the indispensable links between the various modes of transportation—ship, rail, road, and barge—and their function may be defined as follows: "A container terminal is an organization offering a total package of activities to handle and control the container flows from the vessel to road, rail, and waterways and vice versa, resulting in a maximum service for Joan Rijsenbri; is director of equipment engineering and research and development at the Europe Container Terminus in Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
From page 150...
... and terminal operators must cooperate in achieving a maximum use of capital and labor investments in transportation and handling systems and organization regardless of peak demands, clashing of vessels, stacking capacity limits, increasing labor restrictions, and other factors. Some characteristics of the service product to be provided by a high throughput terminal may consist of: operating 7 days a week, 24 hours a day; .
From page 151...
... A guaranteed maximum service time for road haulers throughout the day will require additional (possibly uneconomic) labor and equipment during limited periods
From page 152...
... will inform the operator about the nature of causes that result in nonproductive crane time. It will help to achieve improvements in hourly crane production.
From page 153...
... 50 40 `, 30 of LL Cam up 20 10 o Arrivals Gross Moves Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday FIGURE 1 Weekly distribution of vessel arrivals and call sizes.
From page 154...
... 1\ W=2670 X=5 L= 1381 R = 965 Water= 7761 J ~1 .. dU X=0 W=218 L=612 R = 787 FIGURE 3 Monthly modal split of a multi-user terminal client.
From page 155...
... /i /i / l l , 1 l / / Barge Rail Road Barge Rail Road
From page 156...
... 156 100 90 80 Z 40 LU Cat 70 60 J 50 30 20 10 o 0 1 2 CRANES IN OPERATION FIGURE 5 Crane utilization—multi-user terminal, 1984. 00 90 80 O 70 60 ~ 50 by LU CL 204 10 40 C30 / o Average 4.8 I / f / /umulative Percentage Number 3 4 5 6 1 1 7 8 I ~ 9 10 11 12 13 Average 2~9 ,/ /~\Number / i / / / Cumulative Percentage _ 1 1 i, ~ 1 11 1 1 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 CRANES IN OPERATION FIGURE 6 Crane utilization single-user terminal, 1984.
From page 157...
... is the other major element for a shipping line to assess its attractiveness. The analysis of cost elements will be a continuing activity for any terminal management.
From page 158...
... Profit (before tax) Total 60 12.5 3 6 5.25 4 2.25 1 3 3 100 TABLE 3 Characterization of Europe Container Terminus Work Force Category Percentage of Total Operations In 5-shift system, 86.0% In 2-shift system, 9.5% In 1-shift system, 4.5% Maintenance In 5-shift system, 36.0% In 2-shift system, 43.0% In 1-shift system, 21.0% Container control Security Management and other staff Administration Engineering, purchasing, services Data processing Total 70.8 9.9 4.5 3.6 3.1 2.9 2.7 2.5 loon aInclusion of casual labor in these figures would increase the total by 8.5 percent.
From page 159...
... Table 5 shows that effort is required to increase the time a crane can be made available for containerhandling activities. The major areas of attention will be meal breaks and shifts, hatch-cover and other noncontainer handlings, and information exchange between the terminal and shipping lines or their representatives.
From page 160...
... Official meal and coffee breaks Standard allowed for break elongation and shift changes Additional loss through unallowed elongations of meal breaks and shift changes Technical breakdown Crane assistance for lashing Crane tune for hatch cover handling and nonstandard situations Crane delay as a result of inadequate information from shipping line Total losses Potential for Present Productivity Situation Improvement Available for production 1,440 100 55 35 22 36 142 100 490 950 1,440 100 55 o 10 30 100 20 315 1,125 . _ · New Directions, I ~ -- 4 Methods, etc.
From page 161...
... The four major productivity characteristics are presented to terminal management and shipping lines to show conformance with their mutually agreed-upon production objectives. In addition to the regular presentation of performance data, it is helpful to provide middle management with tools that allow them to control the quality of their daily decisions and management activities.
From page 162...
... 162 Line Vessel Waiting for berth Vessel berthed Vessel sailed Berth time Berth delay : 2-01-86 3-01-86 0:00 17:50 3:20 Hrs 9:30 0:00 Ship's operation started Ship's operation finished Ship's time : 2-01-86 17:50 : 3-01-86 2:42 Hrs 8:52 Gross crane hours Net crane hours Hrs 15:54 - 3:01 Hrs 12:53 Total moves 351 Breatbulk (packages) Colli O Performances Berth production Ship's production Gross crane production Net crane production Moves per hour 36.9 39.6 22.1 27.2 Remarks: code 98 container not available FIGURE 9 Terminal performance report.
From page 163...
... 163 Voyage : Date 10 : 06-01-1986 11 1 24 Hrs ETA 1 24 Hrs ETD 11 11 11 2-01-86 19:00 3-01-86 5:00 1' Gross crane hours Crane number 8 11 9 11 11 11 Delays due to ship 1I Lashings Meal - Breaks See remarks 11 11 11 11 Gross hours 8:40 7:14 15:54 Total 0:21 1:00 1:40 3:01 Total 11 Discharged Loaded Shifted Hatches Stacking frames 1I Non-standard 11 216 109 o 26 o O ~ 351 Total 11
From page 164...
... 164 Workplan 0.6 Ship: Developer Datum: 850715 ect Rotterdam 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 7A 7B 08 09 10 BR 11 12 13 :00 :1S :30 :45 :00 :15 :30 :45 :00 :1S :30 :4S :00 :15 :30 :45 :00 :15 :30 :4S :00 :15 :30 :45 :00 :15 :30 :45 :00 :15 :30 :45 :00 :15 :30 :45 :00 :15 :30 :45 :00 :15 :30 45 1 oo 1 15 3 :45 oo !
From page 165...
... Crane Hours 5 Cranes 7 Cranes 400,000 13,500 2,700 1,930 31.0% 22.1% 500,000 16,875 3,375 2,410 38.7% 27.7% 600,000 20,250 4,050 2,895 46.5% 33.2% 700,000 23,625 4,725 3,375 54.3% 38.7% aPercent of magnum available crane time annually. FUTURE TRENDS The past 10 years have shown that productivity is influenced during periods of rapid terminal development.
From page 166...
... Throughout the world, labor in ports has held a very strong position during negotiations, and labor cost developments in Western European ports too have exceeded developments in other industrial areas. Round-the-clock operations really obstruct the required communication between shifts; this may also block productivity improvements.
From page 167...
... _! MAR KET PR I CE PR ESSU RE Unacceptable 45% Undesired 55%
From page 168...
... 168 TABLE 10 Changes in Shipping Line Characteristics 30 percent growth in TEU fleet capacity during 1983-1986 Maximum 24 hours per call, regardless of call size Production guarantees Soft commitments Changes in modal split Door-t~door management requires fie~cibility and last minute decisions TABLE 11 Factors to Consider in Improving Labor Conditions in Marine Tel-lllinals Maintaining and possibly improving good working conditions Maintaining level of payment and fringe benefits Reduction of working hours Continuous labor schemes in 24-hour operations result in communication problems TABLE 12 Considerations in Advancing Information Technology Integrated networks between terminals and ports; harbor information systems linking agents, customs, and major consignees Voice input Automated identification systems Decision support systems Expert systems Simulations Animations Computer-supported logistics and processes
From page 169...
... ; integration of customs activities; . integrated information systems with shipping lines, customs, and agents;
From page 170...
... ; flexible working hours for casual labor; better use of shift labor; selection of operators based on operating skills; better training/education for labor; job-rotation for multiskilled labor; better decision tools for middle management; . reliable automated identification systems (both for equipment and containers)
From page 171...
... With few improvements in cargo handling, the time spent in port remained the same in absolute terms, although since unprovements in vessel operations shortened voyage times, the percentage of total vessel time spent in port increased. The simple truth that ships in port do not earn any money became obvious.
From page 172...
... handling-equipment flexibility, based on sturdy standard units with interchangeable attachments for specific purposes. Terminal Access The ports in Scandinavia were by tradition situated in wellsheltered areas both against weather and foe, and this results in rather time-consuming pilotage.
From page 173...
... A modern terminal must not only comply with the requirement of today, but also have a built-in reserve for the ultralarge units that can be seen on the horizon. Lighting Highly mechanized handling calls for good lighting.
From page 174...
... Door heights should allow any piece of equipment to pass, and the Hotfoot figure is again appropriate. Handling Equipment Gantry cranes are used for pure container handling in the main ports.
From page 175...
... Pure container handling introduced the need for sequencing, i.e., a structured resource planning. Together with some terminals we have developed it further, and prior to each call, we presequence general cargo RoRo ships with the help of a rather simple form.
From page 176...
... As the ports of Scandinavia as well as the Scandinavian Shipping Lines live in a very competitive world, we have made common marketing efforts where quality and efficiency has been our basic message. Productivity As port calls do not earn a shipowner any money, but still must be regarded as necessities for the whole business venture, it is essential that time in port is used for the good, i.e., for cargo operations, and not wasted or, in other words, that port time is minimized.
From page 177...
... As terminals in Sweden that are capable of handling large deepsea vessels have diminished in number to a mere handful and for large pure cellular vessels to a single one, the possibility to substantiate a threat of going somewhere else in Sweden is close to nil, especially when the line's competition in the optional north European ports is much more aggressive. The line's policy, thus, has been to seek cooperation with the ports.
From page 178...
... Canada has, from its beginnings, relied on the railroad to move its products from and to its ports, and it can be rightly said that the two major railroads are the backbone of Canada. These same two railroads have been instrumental in the development of Canadian intermodal transportation technology in both inland rail and port terminal interfaces, and in particular the technology Richard Kusel is president and chief executive officer of Canada Maritime Agencies Limited, Montreal, Canada.
From page 179...
... Both are giants and successful, and while their ideologies of operation may differ from time to time, both railroads have developed extensive container flat-car fleets, have equipped inland terminals, and have participated in development of port terminals, thus creating compatible and smooth ship/terminal rail and truck interfaces creating, in my opinion, one of the best and truly intermodal systems anywhere. Another significant factor affecting terminal productivity is practically a total absence of the traileron-freight-car mode of container transportation in both Canadian terminals and rail systems.
From page 180...
... Ice breaking, snow cleaning, and snow removal from terminals engendered new and specific technologies that now permit uninterrupted operation in adverse weather conditions. In fact it is mostly the speed of the wind that stops terminal operations in Canada, and this is the same reason that operations are interrupted elsewhere in the world.
From page 181...
... 181 220 200 180 140 120 80 60 40 o - Outbound ~ I nbound I I . I 1981 1982 1983 YEAR FIGURE 1 Containerized cargo at the Port of Montreal.
From page 182...
... 182 24 20 18 16 14 10 8 6 4 o 1 1 1 1 1 1 ~ I 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 FIGURE 3 Productivity of cranes at Racine Terminal, Montreal. 4.00 3.50 3.00 2.50 tic 2.00 UJ 1.50 1 .00 0.50 _ 0 _ 1, s~ 0.00 1980 1981 1982 1983 YEA RS 1 984 1985 1986 FIGURE 4 Cargo assessments used for ILA job security and administration—
From page 184...
... This includes labor, steamship companies, railroads, port and transport authorities, and the shipping public itself. It is this factor, in my opinion, that will dictate more than anything else the productivity of any terminal.


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