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4 Overview of Garrison, Field, and Supplemental Protein Intake by U.S. Military Personnel
Pages 93-108

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From page 93...
... CZineZ and John P Warber INTRODUCTION Adequacy of nutrient intake by military personnel has been evaluated on a periodic basis since World War II; the responsibility for evaluating the nutritional status of military personnel and prescribing standards for operational rations has been that of the Army Surgeon General (U.S.
From page 94...
... This chapter presents an overview of ration studies that were conducted during World War II and compares them with more recent studies on energy and protein intake and requirements of military personnel in garrison and operational settings. Reported consumption of amino acid and protein supplements will also be addressed, with freauencv of consumption identified by gender, age, and military specialty.
From page 95...
... or B Rations were those on which the military depended for regular daily feeding; they were required to be fully adequate for all nutrients, meeting standards set by the National Research Council to provide at least 3,000 kcal and 70 g protein. Current operational rations include the MRE for individual consumption and the UGR for group feeding, each exceeding the operational ration standards of 3,600 kcal and 100 g protein (AR 40-25, 1985~.
From page 96...
... Techniques used for data collection included bow field tests and individual and group surveys conducted on site; most subjects were Army soldiers, with the exception of several Air Force units and flight crews. Studies evaluating male soldiers during World War II reported mean intakes of energy in garrison ranging from 3,400 to 3,800 kcal with protein intake from 110 to 132 g; intakes during field training were similar: 3,200 to 4,100 kcal and 100 to 125 g protein, with percentage of energy from protein at 13 percent for both garrison and field (Table 4-2~.
From page 97...
... Surveys of the health, fitness, and nutrition of troops in the Pacific were conducted in 1945 to compare nutrient intake of noncombat garrison soldiers with those who had been in combat continuously for 4/ months. Average nutrient intake of garrison soldiers in the Pacific was similar to intake by soldiers in training camps in the United States, in part due to ample supplies of fresh and frozen foods.
From page 98...
... Hunter Army Airfield, 73 1996 (G) , (Champagne et al., 1997)
From page 99...
... during strenuous cross-country running under highaltitude field conditions (Askew et al., 1986~. During the 10-d exercise, soldiers consumed less than 67 percent of calories recommended for energy balance and lost 3 percent of their body weight, 10 percent of their body fat, and experienced a 5 percent decline in maximal aerobic capacity.
From page 100...
... Nearly onethird of the subjects indicated they wanted to lose weight during the training exercise, and this was reflected in a low mean energy intake of 2,462 kcal for the MRE group and 2,911 kcal for the A Ration group. Even with incomplete consumption of the MREs provided, soldiers in both groups obtained 100 percent of their MRDA for protein and demonstrated a positive nitrogen balance, which indicates that although caloric intake was low, performance and overall nutritional status were not impaired when soldiers consumed only MREs for 30 days.
From page 101...
... Two field studies that included women as subjects were completed with Army Reserve hospitals conducting their annual field training exercises and subjects consuming operational rations. At Fort Hood, Texas, two A Ration meals and one MRE per day were provided during an 8-d test period; individuals also had access to additional foods they brought or that could be purchased from a PX mobile kitchen or fast-food establishments in the vicinity
From page 102...
... No recent studies have been completed on nutrient intake of career military women in garrison. DETERMINATION OF PROTEIN REQUIREMENTS FOR OPERATIONAL RATIONS The first standard recommendations for nutrient requirements for military personnel were formulated by the FNB of the National Research Council, a project that was organized in 1940 in connection with the defense program (Samuels et al., 1947~.
From page 103...
... During a nutrient intake study at Fort Polk, Louisiana, in 1995 (Cline et al., 1997) , only 4 percent of young male soldiers in an Air Defense Artillery company replied that they were using protein supplements.
From page 104...
... AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Male military personnel maintain high protein intakes from food consumption in garrison as well as during field operations. Females, however, generally consume less energy and protein than MRDA guidelines require during field exercises where access to foods is limited to operational rations.
From page 105...
... 1996. Comparisons of iron status, physical activity, and nutritional intake of women entering Army officer and enlisted basic training.
From page 106...
... 1994. Nutritional intake of female soldiers during the U.S.
From page 107...
... 1988. Assessment of habitual diners' nutrient intakes in a military-operated garrison dining facility.
From page 108...
... Does that mean that 36 percent were taking amino acids and a separate 30 percent were taking protein.


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