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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council. 2000. Who Will Do the Science of the Future?: A Symposium on Careers of Women in Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10008.
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WHO WILL DO THE SCIENCE OF THE FUTURE?

A SYMPOSIUM ON CAREERS OF WOMEN IN SCIENCE

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

Committee on Women in Science and Engineering

Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council. 2000. Who Will Do the Science of the Future?: A Symposium on Careers of Women in Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10008.
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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approvedby the Council of the National Academy of Sciences.

This report has been reviewed by persons other than the author accordingto procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting ofmembers of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academyof Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.

This project was supported by the National Academy of Sciences. Anyopinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed inthis publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarilyreflect the view of the National Academy of Sciences.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council. 2000. Who Will Do the Science of the Future?: A Symposium on Careers of Women in Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10008.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

National Academy of Sciences

National Academy of Engineering

Institute of Medicine

National Research Council

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguishedscholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicatedto the furtherance of science and technology and to their use forthe general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted toit by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requiresit to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters.Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academyof Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers.It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of itsmembers, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibilityfor advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineeringalso sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs,encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievementsof engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academyof Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to securethe services of eminent members of appropriate professions in theexamination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public.The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the NationalAcademy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviserto the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identifyissues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shineis president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associatethe broad community of science and technology with the Academy'spurposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government.Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by theAcademy, the Council has become the principal operating agency ofboth the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy ofEngineering in providing services to the government, the public,and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administeredjointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. BruceM. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman,respectively, of the National Research Council.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council. 2000. Who Will Do the Science of the Future?: A Symposium on Careers of Women in Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10008.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council. 2000. Who Will Do the Science of the Future?: A Symposium on Careers of Women in Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10008.
×

SYMPOSIUM STEERING COMMITTEE

MARYE ANNE FOX, Chair,

North Carolina State University

MARGARET BURBIDGE,

University of California, San Diego

MILDRED COHN,

University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

MILDRED DRESSELHAUS,

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (on leave from August 2000)

MARIA NEW,

Cornell University Medical College

VERA RUBIN,

Carnegie Institute of Washington

KAREN UHLENBECK,

University of Texas, Austin

HOWARD GEORGI,

Harvard University

LILIAN WU,

IBM Corporation

COMMITTEE ON WOMEN IN SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING (1999)

HOWARD GEORGI, Co-chair,

Harvard University

LILIAN SHIAO-YEN WU, Co-chair,

IBM Corporation

WILLIE PEARSON JR.,

Wake Forest University

SUSAN SOLOMON,

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)

JULIA WEERTMAN,

Northwestern University

OSEP ADVISORY BOARD LIAISON

STEPHEN LUKASIK, Independent Consultant

Staff

JONG-ON HAHM, Director

SHIREL SMITH, Project Coordinator

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council. 2000. Who Will Do the Science of the Future?: A Symposium on Careers of Women in Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10008.
×

OFFICE OF SCIENTIFIC AND ENGINEERING PERSONNEL ADVISORY COMMITTEE(1999)

M.R.C. GREENWOOD, Chair,

University of California, Santa Cruz

DAVID BRENEMAN,

University of Virginia

CARLOS GUTIERREZ,

California State University, Los Angeles

STEPHEN J. LUKASIK, Independent Consultant,

Los Angeles

JANET NORWOOD,

The Urban Institute

JOHN D. WILEY,

University of Wisconsin, Madison

TADATAKA YAMADA,

Smith Kline Beecham Corporation

A. THOMAS YOUNG,

North Potomac, Maryland

WILLIAM H. MILLER, ex-officio,

University of California, Berkeley

Staff

CHARLOTTE V. KUH, Executive Director

MARILYN J. BAKER, Associate Executive Director

NINA KAULL, Administrative Officer

CATHY JACKSON, Administrative Associate

EDVIN HERNANDEZ, Administrative Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council. 2000. Who Will Do the Science of the Future?: A Symposium on Careers of Women in Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10008.
×

Preface

Modern science is a complex web of many different people and institutions.If we are to maintain the pace of scientific discovery for the benefitof humankind, scientists need to ensure that outstanding people withmany different talents will continue to join the scientific community.Increasingly, we must compete with other communities for the bestminds the world has to offer. If science is to continue to prosperand move forward, we must ensure that no source of scientific intellectis overlooked or lost. This means including women and ethnic minoritiesas active participants in the scientific enterprise.

In 1998, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) asked the NationalResearch Council's (NRC) Committee on Women in Science and Engineering(CWSE) to host a discussion centered on the challenges facing allscientists in the current scientific climate, but focused particularlyon the challenges that women face at every transition point in theircareers.

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council. 2000. Who Will Do the Science of the Future?: A Symposium on Careers of Women in Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10008.
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Meeting participants agreed that these challenges contribute to thesharp losses in numbers of women scientists at each career stage,and that the NAS should make a strong statement to focus attentionon the importance of enabling women to contribute to and lead inthe scientific process. This symposium is the outcome of the 1998meeting.

The symposium was held during the 1999 NAS annual meeting to addressthe question, “Who will do the science of the future?” The symposium focused on the need to bring in manyviewpoints to science and ways to increase the variety of viewpointsby recruiting and retaining women in science. The speakers, all leadersin their fields, emphasized the need to engage and sustain the interestof women in science, and presented ways in which different institutionshave developed approaches to retain women in scientific careers.

The Committee on Women in Science and Engineering was honored tobe asked to organize the NAS symposium. Since its inception in 1991as a standing committee of the NRC, CWSE has worked to coordinate,monitor, and advocate national action on increasing the numbers ofwomen in science and engineering. The committee members representdiverse scientific and engineering disciplines, and all have broughtattention to the importance of including women in their own fields.

We would like to thank the staff of CWSE, Dr. Jong-on Hahm, Director,and Shirel Smith, Project Coordinator, for bringing to fruition theideas of the symposium steering committee and CWSE. We would alsolike to thank Dr. Charlotte Kuh, Executive Director of the Officeof Scientific and Engineering Personnel in which CWSE is housed,for her support and guidance to CWSE during coordination of the symposium.

Howard Georgi, Ph.D., Co-chair

Lilian Shiao-Yen Wu, Ph.D., Co-chair

Committee on Women in Science and Engineering

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council. 2000. Who Will Do the Science of the Future?: A Symposium on Careers of Women in Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10008.
×
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council. 2000. Who Will Do the Science of the Future?: A Symposium on Careers of Women in Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10008.
×
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council. 2000. Who Will Do the Science of the Future?: A Symposium on Careers of Women in Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10008.
×
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council. 2000. Who Will Do the Science of the Future?: A Symposium on Careers of Women in Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10008.
×
This page in the original is blank.
Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council. 2000. Who Will Do the Science of the Future?: A Symposium on Careers of Women in Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10008.
×

Figures

FIGURES

 1

 

The Frog Deformity Problem,

 

18

 2

 

Lefty The Frog,

 

20

 3

 

Research Forum on Deformed Frogs,

 

21

 4

 

Women in Computer Science,

 

32

 5

 

Computer Science Ph.D.s,

 

33

 6

 

The Pipeline,

 

34

 7

 

Interest in Computing,

 

36

 8

 

Interest in Computing: Reason for Majoring in Computer Science,

 

36

 9

 

Proportion of 24-year-olds Earning NS&E Degrees, by Country,

 

62

 10

 

Nature Cover Story on Gender Differences,

 

64

 11

 

Biological Sciences B.S. Degrees,

 

65

 12

 

Biological Sciences Ph.D.s,

 

66

 13

 

Women Biological Scientists in Academic Positions as a Percentageof Total (Men and Women),

 

66

 14

 

Percentage of Women in Faculty Levels for All Science and Engineering,

 

67

 15

 

Assistant Professors: Percentage of Women by Discipline,

 

68

 16

 

Full Professors: Percentage of Women by Discipline,

 

68

 17

 

Percentage of Women Scientists (Ph.D.s awarded pre-1969) CurrentlyEmployed in Research I and II Institutions and Percentage of CurrentFemale NAS Membership by Section,

 

70

 18

 

Percentage of Women Biological Scientists Employed in Different Sectors,

 

72

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council. 2000. Who Will Do the Science of the Future?: A Symposium on Careers of Women in Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10008.
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This page in the original is blank.
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council. 2000. Who Will Do the Science of the Future?: A Symposium on Careers of Women in Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10008.
×

WHO WILL DO THE SCIENCE OF THE FUTURE?

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council. 2000. Who Will Do the Science of the Future?: A Symposium on Careers of Women in Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10008.
×
This page in the original is blank.
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council. 2000. Who Will Do the Science of the Future?: A Symposium on Careers of Women in Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10008.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council. 2000. Who Will Do the Science of the Future?: A Symposium on Careers of Women in Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10008.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council. 2000. Who Will Do the Science of the Future?: A Symposium on Careers of Women in Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10008.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council. 2000. Who Will Do the Science of the Future?: A Symposium on Careers of Women in Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10008.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council. 2000. Who Will Do the Science of the Future?: A Symposium on Careers of Women in Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10008.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council. 2000. Who Will Do the Science of the Future?: A Symposium on Careers of Women in Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10008.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council. 2000. Who Will Do the Science of the Future?: A Symposium on Careers of Women in Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10008.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council. 2000. Who Will Do the Science of the Future?: A Symposium on Careers of Women in Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10008.
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Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council. 2000. Who Will Do the Science of the Future?: A Symposium on Careers of Women in Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10008.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council. 2000. Who Will Do the Science of the Future?: A Symposium on Careers of Women in Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10008.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council. 2000. Who Will Do the Science of the Future?: A Symposium on Careers of Women in Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10008.
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Who Will Do the Science of the Future? is the summary of a symposium on careers of women in science. The symposium incorporated three panels of presenters: one focusing on the next generation, Science for All Students; a second that looks in depth at the issues reflected in one particular field of science, computer science, reflecting an in-depth view of academic and industrial computer scientists; and a third that focuses on strategies and policies to recruit, retain, and promote career advancement for women scientists. Lastly, there was a plenary address on how to ensure women continue to advance into positions of leadership in science.

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