National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: III. Early Research Progress. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10065.
×

Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter

• III •

Early Research Progress

Committee on Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter

Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology

Commission on Life Sciences

Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: III. Early Research Progress. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10065.
×

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
2101 Constitution Ave., N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This project was supported by Contract No. 68-C-98-003 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: III. Early Research Progress. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10065.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

National Academy of Sciences

National Academy of Engineering

Institute of Medicine

National Research Council

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: III. Early Research Progress. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10065.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: III. Early Research Progress. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10065.
×

COMMITTEE ON RESEARCH PRIORITIES FOR AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER

J ONATHAN S AMET (Chair),

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland

G LEN R. C ASS ,

Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta

J UDITH C HOW ,

Desert Research Institute, Reno, Nevada

B ART E. C ROES ,

California Air Resources Board, Sacramento

R OBERT E. F ORSTER ,

University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia

D ANIEL S. G REENBAUM ,

Health Effects Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts

P HILIP K. H OPKE ,

Clarkson University, Potsdam, New York

P ETROS K OUTRAKIS,

Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts

D ANIEL K REWSKI ,

University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario

P AUL L IOY ,

University of Medicine and Dentistry–New Jersey, Piscataway

J OE L. M AUDERLY ,

Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, New Mexico

R OGER O. M CCLELLAN ,

Albuquerque, New Mexico

G ÜNTER O BERDÖRSTER ,

University of Rochester, Rochester, New York

R EBECCA P ARKIN ,

George Washington University, Washington, D.C.

J OYCE E. P ENNER ,

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

R ICHARD S CHLESINGER ,

New York University School of Medicine, Tuxedo

F RANK E. S PEIZER ,

Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts

M ARK U TELL , University of Rochester, Rochester, New York

R ONALD W HITE ,

American Lung Association and National Osteoporosis Foundation, Washington, D.C.

W ARREN W HITE ,

Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri

R ONALD W YZGA ,

Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, California

T ERRY F. Y OSIE ,

American Chemistry Council, Arlington, Virginia

Project Staff

R AYMOND A. W ASSEL , Principal Staff Officer

K ULBIR B AKSHI , Senior Staff Officer

J OHN H OLMES , Senior Staff Officer

E ILEEN A BT , Staff Officer

N ORMAN G ROSSBLATT , Editor

M IRSADA K ARALIC - L ONCAREVIC , Information Specialist

T RACIE H OLBY , Senior Project Assistant

E MILY S MAIL , Senior Project Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: III. Early Research Progress. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10065.
×

BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY

G ORDON O RIANS (Chair),

University of Washington, Seattle

J OHN D OULL ,

University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City

D AVID A LLEN ,

University of Texas, Austin

I NGRID C. B URKE ,

Colorado State University, Fort Collins

T HOMAS B URKE ,

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland

G LEN R. C ASS ,

Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta

W ILLIAM L. C HAMEIDES ,

Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta

C HRISTOPHER B. F IELD ,

Carnegie Institute of Washington, Stanford, California

J OHN G ERHART ,

University of California, Berkeley

J. P AUL G ILMAN ,

Celera Genomics, Rockville, Maryland

D ANIEL S. G REENBAUM ,

Health Effects Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts

B RUCE D. H AMMOCK ,

University of California, Davis

R OGENE H ENDERSON ,

Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, New Mexico

C AROL H ENRY ,

American Chemistry Council, Arlington, Virginia

R OBERT H UGGETT ,

Michigan State University, East Lansing

J AMES F. K ITCHELL ,

University of Wisconsin, Madison

D ANIEL K REWSKI ,

University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario

J AMES A. M AC M AHON ,

Utah State University, Logan

C HARLES O'M ELIA ,

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland

W ILLEM F. P ASSCHIER ,

Health Council of the Netherlands, The Hague

A NN P OWERS ,

Pace University School of Law, White Plains, New York

K IRK S MITH ,

University of California, Berkeley

T ERRY F. Y OSIE ,

American Chemistry Council, Arlington, Virginia

Senior Staff

J AMES J. R EISA , Director

D AVID J. P OLICANSKY , Associate Director and Senior Program Director for Applied Ecology

R AYMOND A. W ASSEL , Senior Program Director for Environmental Sciences and Engineering

K ULBIR B AKSHI , Program Director for the Committee on Toxicology

R OBERTA M. W EDGE , Program Director for Risk Analysis

K. J OHN H OLMES , Senior Staff Officer

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: III. Early Research Progress. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10065.
×

COMMISSION ON LIFE SCIENCES

M ICHAEL T. C LEGG (Chair),

University of California, Riverside

P AUL B ERG (Vice Chair),

Stanford University, Stanford, California

F REDERICK R. A NDERSON ,

Cadwalader, Wickersham & Taft, Washington, D.C.

J OANNA B URGER ,

Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey

J AMES E. C LEAVER ,

University of California, San Francisco

D AVID S. E ISENBERG ,

University of California, Los Angeles

N EAL L. F IRST ,

University of Wisconsin, Madison

D AVID J. G ALAS ,

Keck Graduate Institute of Applied Life Science, Claremont, California

D AVID V. G OEDDEL ,

Tularik, Inc., South San Francisco, California

A RTURO G OMEZ -P OMPA ,

University of California, Riverside

C OREY S. G OODMAN ,

University of California, Berkeley

J ON W. G ORDON ,

Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York

D AVID G. H OEL ,

Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston

B ARBARA S. H ULKA ,

University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

C YNTHIA J. K ENYON ,

University of California, San Francisco

B RUCE R. L EVIN ,

Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia

D AVID M. L IVINGSTON ,

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts

D ONALD R. M ATTISON ,

March of Dimes, White Plains, New York

E LLIOT M. M EYEROWITZ ,

California Institute of Technology, Pasadena

R OBERT T. P AINE ,

University of Washington, Seattle

R ONALD R. S EDEROFF ,

North Carolina State University, Raleigh

R OBERT R. S OKAL ,

State University of New York, Stony Brook

C HARLES F. S TEVENS ,

The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California

S HIRLEY M. T ILGHMAN ,

Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey

R AYMOND L. W HITE ,

DNA Sciences, Inc., Mountain View, California

Staff

W ARREN R. M UIR , Executive Director

J ACQUELINE K. P RINCE , Financial Officer

B ARBARA B. S MITH , Administrative Associate

L AURA T. H OLLIDAY , Senior Program Assistant

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: III. Early Research Progress. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10065.
×

COMMISSION ON GEOSCIENCES, ENVIRONMENT, AND RESOURCES

G EORGE M. H ORNBERGER (Chair),

University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia

R ICHARD A. C ONWAY ,

Union Carbide Corporation (Retired), S. Charleston, West Virginia

L YNN G OLDMAN ,

Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland

T HOMAS E. G RAEDEL ,

Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut

T HOMAS J. G RAFF ,

Environmental Defense, Oakland, California

E UGENIA K ALNAY ,

University of Maryland, College Park

D EBRA K NOPMAN ,

Progressive Policy Institute, Washington, D.C.

B RAD M OONEY,

J. Brad Mooney Associates, Ltd., Arlington, Virginia

H UGH C. M ORRIS ,

El Dorado Gold Corporation, Vancouver, British Columbia

H. R ONALD P ULLIAM ,

University of Georgia, Athens

M ILTON R USSELL ,

Joint Institute for Energy and Environment and University of Tennessee (Emeritus), Knoxville

R OBERT J. S ERAFIN ,

National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado

A NDREW R. S OLOW ,

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts

EAN Z EN ,

University of Maryland, College Park

Staff

R OBERT M. H AMILTON , Executive Director

G REGORY H. S YMMES , Associate Executive Director

J EANETTE S POON , Administrative and Financial Officer

C HRISTINE H ENDERSON , Scientific Reports Officer

S ANDI F ITZPATRICK , Administrative Associate

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: III. Early Research Progress. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10065.
×

OTHER REPORTS OF THE BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY

A Risk-Management Strategy for PCB-Contaminated Sediments (2001)

Toxicological Effects of Methylmercury (2000)

Strengthening Science at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Research-Management and Peer-Review Practices (2000)

Scientific Frontiers in Developmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment (2000)

Modeling Mobile-Source Emissions (2000)

Toxicological Risks of Selected Flame-Retardant Chemicals (2000)

Copper in Drinking Water (2000)

Ecological Indicators for the Nation (2000)

Waste Incineration and Public Health (1999)

Hormonally Active Agents in the Environment (1999)

Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio (1998); II. Evaluating Research Progress and Updating the Portfolio (1999)

Ozone-Forming Potential of Reformulated Gasoline (1999)

Risk-Based Waste Classification in California (1999)

Arsenic in Drinking Water (1999)

Brucellosis in the Greater Yellowstone Area (1998)

The National Research Council's Committee on Toxicology: The First 50 Years (1997)

Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests (1997)

Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet (1996)

Upstream: Salmon and Society in the Pacific Northwest (1996)

Science and the Endangered Species Act (1995)

Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries (1995)

Biologic Markers (5 reports, 1989-1995)

Review of EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (3 reports, 1994-1995)

Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment (1994)

Ranking Hazardous Waste Sites for Remedial Action (1994)

Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children (1993)

Issues in Risk Assessment (1993)

Setting Priorities for Land Conservation (1993)

Protecting Visibility in National Parks and Wilderness Areas (1993)

Dolphins and the Tuna Industry (1992)

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: III. Early Research Progress. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10065.
×

Hazardous Materials on the Public Lands (1992)

Science and the National Parks (1992)

Animals as Sentinels of Environmental Health Hazards (1991)

Assessment of the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Studies Program, Volumes I-IV (1991-1993)

Human Exposure Assessment for Airborne Pollutants (1991)

Monitoring Human Tissues for Toxic Substances (1991)

Rethinking the Ozone Problem in Urban and Regional Air Pollution (1991)

Decline of the Sea Turtles (1990)

Copies of these reports may be ordered from the National Academy Press

(800) 624-6242

(202) 334-3313

www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: III. Early Research Progress. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10065.
×

Preface

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), other federal and state government agencies, and nongovernment organizations are conducting a major multiyear research program to improve scientific understanding of airborne particulate matter and its effects on human health. An overall objective is to reduce uncertainties in the scientific evidence used to guide regulation of airborne particulate matter in the United States. At the request of Congress and EPA, the National Research Council's (NRC's) Committee on Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter proposed, in its first report, a conceptual framework to guide the formation of that program, and the committee is now independently monitoring the program's implementation.

The first of the committee's four planned reports, Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio, was released in 1998. It identified 10 high-priority research topics linked to key policy-related scientific uncertainties and presented a 13-year “research investment portfolio” containing recommended short-term and long-term phasing and estimated costs of research on each topic. Congress, EPA, and the scientific community have given strong support to the committee 's recommendations and have implemented substantial changes in research efforts in response to them.

The committee's second report, Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: II. Evaluating Research Progress and Updating the Portfolio, released in 1999, described the committee's plans for monitoring the progress of re-

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: III. Early Research Progress. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10065.
×

search. In addition, the research recommendations from the committee 's first report were updated, and recommendations related to emissions and air-quality models were substantially revised.

This, the committee's third report, monitors the progress of the research begun in 1998 or later to address the priority research topics identified by the committee. Although much research has been initiated, not enough time has elapsed for many of the projects to be completed and their results reported. Therefore, this report should be viewed as an interim assessment of research progress. In preparing its fourth report, which is due near the end of 2002, the committee will have the opportunity to evaluate a more extensive body of research results.

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Arthur DuBois, Yale University Medical School, New Haven, Connecticut; Robert Frosch, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts; Carol Henry, American Chemistry Council, Arlington, Virginia; George Hidy, ENVAIR, Placitas, New Mexico; Morton Lippmann, New York University Medical School, Tuxedo, New York; Thomas Peterson, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona; Robert Phalen, University of California, Irvine, California; and George Wolff, retired, Farmington, Michigan.

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Donald Mattison, March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

The committee gratefully acknowledges John Bachmann, Judith Graham, Lester Grant, Peter Preuss, Kenneth Reid, Lawrence Reiter, Richard Scheffe, John Vandenberg, and James Vickery of EPA for making presentations or

Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: III. Early Research Progress. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10065.
×

providing information to the committee. In addition, we are grateful to Maria Constantini and others at the Health Effects Institute for developing an internet-based inventory of particulate matter research projects.

We are grateful for the assistance of the NRC staff in preparing the report. Staff members who contributed to this effort are Raymond Wassel, principal staff officer for the committee; James J. Reisa, director of the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology; Kulbir Bakshi and K. John Holmes, senior staff officers; Eileen Abt and Laurie Geller, staff officers; Norman Grossblatt, editor; Ruth Crossgrove, publications manager; Mirsada Karalic-Loncarevic, information specialist; Tracie Holby and Emily Smail, senior program assistants; and Ramya Chari, project assistant.

Finally, I would like to thank all the members of the committee for their dedicated efforts throughout the development of this report.

Jonathan Samet, Chair

Committee on Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: III. Early Research Progress. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10065.
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Research Topic 8.  Susceptible Subpopulations,

 

104

   

Research Topic 9:  Mechanisms of Injury,

 

112

   

Research Topic 10:  Analysis and Measurement,

 

122

 4

 

O VERALL F INDINGS AND R ECOMMENDATIONS

 

130

   

 Key Findings and Recommendations Concerning Scientific Value, Decisionmaking Value, and Timing and Feasibility of Particulate-Matter Research,

 

130

   

 Implementation of Supersite and Speciation Programs: A Case Study,

 

137

   

 Overarching Issues Related to Implementation of Particulate-Matter Research Program,

 

141

   

 Overall Evaluation of Particulate-Matter Research Progress,

 

146

   

 What Is Success?

 

147

 

 

REFERENCES

 

149

 APPENDIX A:

 

BIOGRAPHICAL I NFORMATION ON THE COMMITTEE ON RESEARCH PRIORITIES FOR AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER

 

156

 APPENDIX B:

 

THE COMMITTEE'S STATEMENT OF TASK

 

168

TABLES

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Research Priorities for
Airborne Particulate Matter:
III. Early Research
Progress

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Regulatory standards are already on the books at the the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to address health risks posed by inhaling tiny particles from smoke, vehicle exhaust, and other sources.

At the same time, Congress and EPA have initiated a multimillion dollar research effort to better understand the sources of these airborne particles, the levels of exposure to people, and the ways that these particles cause damage.

To provide independent guidance to the EPA, Congress asked the National Research Council to study the relevant issues. The result is a series of four reports on the particulate-matter research program. The first two books offered a conceptual framework for a national research program, identified the 10 most critical research needs, and described the recommended timing and estimated costs of such research.

This, the third volume, begins the task of assessing the progress made in implementing the research program. The National Research Council ultimately concludes that the ongoing program is appropriately addressing many of the key uncertainties. However, it also identifies a number of critical specific subjects that should be given greater attention. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter focuses on the most current and planned research projects with an eye toward the fourth and final report, which will contain an updated assessment.

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