National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Alternative Technologies to Replace Antipersonnel Landmines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10071.
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Page i

ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGIES TO REPLACE ANTIPERSONNEL LANDMINES

Committee on Alternative Technologies to Replace Antipersonnel Landmines

Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems

Office of International Affairs

National Research Council



NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Alternative Technologies to Replace Antipersonnel Landmines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10071.
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Page ii

    NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418

    NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

    This study was supported by Contract/Grant No. V101(93)P-1637, TO#16 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Department of Defense. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

    International Standard Book Number: 0-309-07349-9

    Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 2001088182

    Limited copies of this report are available from:

    Division of Military Science and Technology

    National Research Council

    2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W.

    Washington, D.C. 20418

    Additional copies are available from National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, D.C. 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu

    Copyright 2001 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

    Printed in the United States of America

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Alternative Technologies to Replace Antipersonnel Landmines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10071.
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Page iii

    THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

    National Academy of Sciences

    National Academy of Engineering

    Institute of Medicine

    National Research Council

    The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

    The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

    The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine.

    The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Alternative Technologies to Replace Antipersonnel Landmines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10071.
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    COMMITTEE ON ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGIES TO REPLACE ANTIPERSONNEL LANDMINES

    GEORGE BUGLIARELLO (NAE), chair, Polytechnic University, Brooklyn, New York

    H. NORMAN ABRAMSON (NAE), Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas

    THOMAS F. HAFER, Science and Technology Associates, Inc., Arlington, Virginia

    J. JEROME HOLTON, Defense Group, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia

    LEE M. HUNT, Consultant, Alexandria, Virginia

    RICHARD H. JOHNSON, U.S. Army (retired), Alexandria, Virginia

    K. SHARVAN KUMAR, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island

    RONALD F. LEHMAN II, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California

    LARRY G. LEHOWICZ, U.S. Army (retired), Quantum Research, International, Arlington, Virginia

    ALAN M. LOVELACE (NAE), General Dynamics Corporation (retired), La Jolla, California

    HARVEY M. SAPOLSKY, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge

    DANIEL R. SCHROEDER, U.S. Army (retired), Vass, North Carolina

    MARION W. SCOTT, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    K. ANNE STREET, Riverside Consulting Group, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia

    PATRICK H. WINSTON, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge

    National Research Council Staff

    BRUCE A. BRAUN, Director, Division of Military Science and Technology

    JO L. HUSBANDS, Senior Staff Officer, Office of International Affairs

    MARGARET N. NOVACK, Study Director

    LOIS E. PETERSON, Program Officer

    WILLIAM E. CAMPBELL, Administrative Coordinator

    CHRISTINA B. MAIERS, Program Specialist (until August 2000)

    GWEN ROBY, Senior Project Assistant

    Liaisons

    Board on Army Science and Technology

    GEORGE T. SINGLEY III, Hicks and Associates, Inc., McLean, Virginia

    Air Force Science and Technology Board

    ANTHONY J. BURSHNICK, U.S. Air Force (retired), Consultant, Springfield, Virginia

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Alternative Technologies to Replace Antipersonnel Landmines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10071.
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    COMMISSION ON ENGINEERING AND TECHNICAL SYSTEMS

    W. DALE COMPTON (NAE) chair, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana

    ELEANOR BAUM, Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art, New York, New York

    RUTH M. DAVIS (NAE), Pymatuning Group, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia

    HENRY J. HATCH (NAE), U.S. Army (retired), Reston, Virginia

    STUART L. KNOOP, Oudens and Knoop, Architects, PC, Chevy Chase, Maryland

    NANCY G. LEVESON (NAE), Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge

    CORA B. MARRETT, University of Massachusetts, Amherst

    ROBERT M. NEREM (NAE), Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta

    LAWRENCE T. PAPAY (NAE), Science Applications International Corporation, McLean, Virginia

    BRADFORD W. PARKINSON (NAE), Stanford University, Stanford, California

    BARRY M. TROST (NAS), Stanford University, Stanford, California

    JAMES C. WILLIAMS (NAE), GE Aircraft Engines, Cincinnati, Ohio

    RONALD W. YATES, U.S. Air Force (retired), Monument, Colorado

    Staff

    DOUGLAS BAUER, Executive Director

    DENNIS CHAMOT, Deputy Executive Director

    SYLVIA GILBERT, Administrative Associate

    CARLA PAGE, Administrative Assistant

    SHARON SEGAL, Financial Officer

    CAROL R. ARENBERG, Editor

    NOTE: This study was initiated under the auspices of the Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems, which was subsumed in January 2001 by the newly established Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Alternative Technologies to Replace Antipersonnel Landmines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10071.
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    OFFICE OF INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS INTERNATIONAL ADVISORY BOARD

    F. SHERWOOD ROWLAND (NAS, IOM), chair OIA, co-chair IAB, University of California, Irvine; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Sciences

    HAROLD K. FORSEN (NAE), co-chair IAB, Bechtel Corporation (retired); Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering

    FRANCISCO J. AYALA (NAS), University of California, Irvine

    JOHN D. BALDESCHWIELER (NAS), California Institute of Technology, Pasadena

    NICOLE BALL, University of Maryland, College Park

    DAVID R. CHALLONER (IOM), University of Florida, Gainesville; Foreign Secretary, Institute of Medicine

    ELLEN FROST, Institute for International Economics, Washington, D.C.

    JOHN H. GIBBONS (NAE), Consultant, The Plains, Virginia

    DAVID A. HAMBURG (NAS, IOM), Carnegie Corporation of New York (emeritus), New York

    RICHARD R. HARWOOD, Michigan State University, East Lansing

    DONALD A. HENDERSON (NAS, IOM), Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland

    JULIA MARTON-LEFEVRE, Leadership for Environment and Development International, Inc., London, United Kingdom

    LEAL ANNE MERTES, University of California, Santa Barbara

    HENRY METZGER (NAS), National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland

    DIANA S. NATALICIO, University of Texas at E1 Paso

    JAMES W. POIROT (NAE), CH2M Hill, Inc. (retired), Denver, Colorado

    ERNEST J. WILSON III, University of Maryland, College Park

    Staff

    JOHN BORIGHT, Executive Director

    CAROL PICARD, Associate Executive Director

    JOANNA K. ROSENBERGER, Administrative and Financial Officer

    EFFIE BENTSI-ADOTEYE, Administrative Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Alternative Technologies to Replace Antipersonnel Landmines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10071.
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Page vii

Preface

This National Research Council (NRC) study, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) in response to a mandate from Congress, addresses the question of whether there are alternatives to antipersonnel landmines (APL)—including technologies, tactics, and operational concepts. The study was conducted at an interesting historical juncture, when the United States is at peace and, at the same time, the number of new technologies rich in military possibilities is unprecedented. The convergence of these two factors presents the U.S. Armed Forces with a unique window of opportunity to develop new systems and concepts to address future challenges.

This is also a moment of heightened international concern about the thousands of civilian casualties that occur every year when APL that have been left in the field after a conflict explode automatically on contact. When military operations are conducted in the midst of a civilian population, the problem is compounded because today's mines cannot discriminate between friend and foe, belligerent and civilian. It is important to note, however, that APL fielded by U.S. forces, except for APL in storage in Korea, are designed to self-destruct or self-deactivate at a preset time. Therefore, they do not remain a danger indefinitely.

No simple device today can provide capabilities comparable to those of APL, both as self-standing devices and as a part of other systems. Devices currently under development include mine-like devices that do not explode automatically on contact and nonlethal devices that could complement lethal devices and systems. Thus, the functions of today's APL could be performed by a combination of devices, carefully planned tactics, and appropriate operational procedures. In some circumstances, however, replacing APL could lead to higher casualties to our ground forces and/or could reduce our military capabilities.

The committee believes strongly that the development of new systems with decoupled sensing, communication, and explosive functions and the creation of networks of technologically sophisticated tactical sensors would greatly increase the situational awareness and power of war fighters and help meet the goal of ensuring the information superiority of U.S. forces. These systems would also respond to the humanitarian principle manifested in the Ottawa Convention of eliminating antipersonnel devices that explode on contact. Although these new systems are bound to have vulnerabilities different from those of APL, these vulnerabilities could be greatly reduced by the application of appropriate technologies. Therefore, DOD should move rapidly to support pertinent research and development to create fieldable systems.

The NRC committee that produced this report worked diligently in the limited time available to respond to DOD's request. The report draws on presentations to the committee in both public and closed sessions by representatives of government, industry, and nongovernmental organizations, interviews, research by committee members, and their expertise and judgment.

The committee is grateful to everyone who contributed to the study, particularly Margaret Novack, study director, and Lois Peterson, program officer, who worked tirelessly to see the study through to completion.

George Bugliarello, Chair

Committee on Alternative Technologies to Replace Antipersonnel Landmines

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Alternative Technologies to Replace Antipersonnel Landmines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10071.
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Page viii

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Alternative Technologies to Replace Antipersonnel Landmines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10071.
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Page ix

Acknowledgments

The study was conducted under the codirectorship of two National Research Council commission-level offices: the Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems (CETS) and the Office of International Affairs (OIA). An oversight group was formed to ensure unity of effort and to provide an internal review of this report. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the oversight group:

Henry J. Hatch (NAE), chair, U.S. Army (retired)

John Baldeschwieler (NAE), California Institute of Technology

Nicole Ball, University of Maryland

Ruth M. Davis (NAE), Pymatuning Group, Inc.

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

Arden L. Bement (NAE), Purdue University

John Christie, Logistics Management Institute

Stephen D. Goose, Human Rights Watch

Jerome H. Granrud, U.S. Army (retired)

Thomas McNaugher, RAND Corporation

Hyla Napadensky (NAE), Napadensky Energetics

Richard I. Neal, U.S. Marine Corps (retired)

Francis B. Paca, VSE Corporation

William C. Schneck, U.S. Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate

Sarah Sewall, Carr Center for Human Rights

John F. Troxell, U.S. Army War College

Gerold Yonas, Sandia National Laboratories

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Lewis M. Branscomb, NAE, Harvard University. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Alternative Technologies to Replace Antipersonnel Landmines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10071.
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Page x

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Alternative Technologies to Replace Antipersonnel Landmines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10071.
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Contents

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1
1     INTRODUCTION 10
    Definitions, 10
    History of Mines, 11
    Residual Hazards of Mines, 13
    International Instruments, 13
    The U.S. Position, 15
    Committee Process, 17
    Report Road Map, 18
2     NATIONAL SECURITY ENVIRONMENTS AND THE CONTEXT FOR LANDMINES 19
    National Security Strategies, 19
    Benefits and Vulnerabilities of New Technologies, 22
3     CURRENT USES OF ANTIPERSONNEL LANDMINES 25
    Doctrinal Guidance for Using Landmines, 25
    Role of Landmines in Warfare, 26
    Capabilities of Antipersonnel Landmines, 26
    Technologies in Antipersonnel Landmines, 27
4     EVALUATION METHODOLOGY 30
    Methodology, 30
    Baseline Systems, 30
    Criteria, 30
5     ALTERNATIVES AVAILABLE TODAY 35
    Overview, 35
    Nonmateriel Alternatives, 35
    Materiel Alternatives, 36
    Committee Assessments, 41
6     ALTERNATIVES AVAILABLE BY 2006 45
    Overview, 45
    Nonmateriel Alternatives, 45
    Materiel Alternatives, 45
    Committee Assessments, 55
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Alternative Technologies to Replace Antipersonnel Landmines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10071.
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7     ALTERNATIVES POTENTIALLY AVAILABLE AFTER 2006 60
    Overview, 60
    Materiel Alternatives, 63
    Committee Assessments, 73
8     CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 77
    Introduction, 77
    Alternatives Available by 2006, 77
    Alternatives Potentially Available After 2006, 78
    Self-Destructing, Self-Deactivating Fuzes, 79
REFERENCES 80
APPENDIXES
    A     BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF COMMITTEE MEMBERS 85
    B     COMMITTEE MEETINGS 88
    C     CURRENT TYPES OF U.S. LANDMINES 92
    D     VALUE OF ANTIPERSONNEL LANDMINES IN UNPROTECTED MIXED MINEFIELDS 99
    E     THE OTTAWA CONVENTION AND AMENDED PROTOCOL II OF THE CONVENTION ON CONVENTIONAL WEAPONS 101
    F     SIGNATORIES TO THE OTTAWA CONVENTION AND THEIR ALTERNATIVES TO LANDMINES 115
    G     MISSION NEED STATEMENTS 118
Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Alternative Technologies to Replace Antipersonnel Landmines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10071.
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Page xiii

Tables, Figures, and Boxes

TABLES

ES-1     Current and Potential Systems Considered in This Report, 4
1-1     Current and Projected Funding for Tracks I, II, and III, 17
5-1     Alternatives Available Today, 37
5-2     Score Sheet for Alternatives Available Today, 42
6-1     Alternatives Available by 2006, 46
6-2     Score Sheet for Alternatives Available by 2006, 58
7-1     Alternatives Potentially Available After 2006, 64
7-2     Score Sheet for Alternatives Potentially Available After 2006, 75
C-1     Current U.S. Mines, 93

FIGURES

3-1     Mine components, 27
5-1     Military effectiveness of currently available alternatives based on qualitative scoring by the committee, 43
6-1     Military effectiveness of alternatives available by 2006 based on qualitative scoring by the committee, 59
7-1     Military effectiveness of alternatives potentially available after 2006 based on qualitative scoring by the committee, 76
C-1     Landmine systems on the battlefield, 93
C-2     M14, 94
C-3     M16, 94
C-4     Pursuit denial munition, 94
C-5     M18 Claymore, 95
C-6     ADAM mine projectile, 95
C-7     Hornet/WAM, 96
C-8     RAAMS projectile, 96
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Alternative Technologies to Replace Antipersonnel Landmines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10071.
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C-9     GEMSS system, 97
C-10     MOPMS, 97
C-11     Gator projectile, 97
C-12     Volcano delivery system, 98

BOXES

1-1     Definitions of Antipersonnel Landmines, 11
3-1     Barriers, Obstacles, and Mines, 25
3-2     Capabilities of Antipersonnel Landmines, 27
3-3     Unexploded Ordnance Hazards, 28
6-1     Track 1 Nonself-destructing Alternative (NSD-A), 55
6-2     Remote Area-Denial Artillery Munition (RADAM), 57
D-1     Fundamentals of U.S. Breaching Operations, 100
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Alternative Technologies to Replace Antipersonnel Landmines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10071.
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Page xv

Acronyms

ADAM Area-Denial Artillery Munition

APL antipersonnel landmines

AT antitank (mine)


BAT Brilliant Antiarmor Submunition

BATAAM BAT Antiarmor Munition

BNLM Bounding Nonlethal Munition


C4ISR command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance

CCW Convention on Conventional Weapons

CFC Combined Forces Command

CINC Commander in Chief

CJCS Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff

CLADS Canister-Launched Area-Denial System


DARPA Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

DOD U.S. Department of Defense

DPICM Dual-Purpose Improved Conventional Munition

DWSC Distributed Web Sensor Complex


EWSS Early Warning Subsystem


FASCAM Family of Scatterable Mines

FCS Future Combat System

FM field manual


GEMSS Ground-Emplaced Mine-Scattering System

GPS Global Positioning System


HESF Hand-Emplaced Sensor Field

HMMWV High-Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle


JSTARS Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System


LADAR laser radar

LDMG LADAR-directed machine gun


MEMS microelectromechanical system

MLRS Multiple-Launch Rocket System

MOPMS Modular-Pack Mine System

MOSAIC multifunctional, on-the-move, secure, adaptive, integrated communication


NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization

NSD-A nonself-destructing (antipersonnel landmine) alternative


ORD Operational Requirements Document


PIP Product Improvement Program


RAAMS Remote Antiarmor Mine System

RAAMS-NL Remote Antiarmor Mine System-Nonlethal

RADAM Remote Area-Denial Artillery Munition

RD-Sensor RAAMS enhanced with telemetry and sensor package

RD-Telemetry RAAMS enhanced with telemetry

RD-WAM Remotely Delivered Wide Area Munition

RRASMS Radio/Radar Sensor Munition System


SADARM Sense and Destroy Armor Munition

SSDMS Small Short-Duration Mine System

SFW Sensor Fuzed Weapon

SINCGARS Single-Channel Ground-to-Air Radio System


TACMS Tactical Missile System


UNC United Nations Command

URAS Unmanned Remote Ambush System


WAM Wide Area Munition

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Alternative Technologies to Replace Antipersonnel Landmines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10071.
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This book examines potential technologies for replacing antipersonnel landmines by 2006, the U.S. target date for signing an international treaty banning these weapons. Alternative Technologies to Replace Antipersonnel Landmines emphasizes the role that technology can play to allow certain weapons to be used more selectively, reducing the danger to uninvolved civilians while improving the effectiveness of the U.S. military. Landmines are an important weapon in the U.S. military’s arsenal but the persistent variety can cause unintended casualties, to both civilians and friendly forces. New technologies could replace some, but not all, of the U.S. military’s antipersonnel landmines by 2006. In the period following 2006, emerging technologies might eliminate the landmine totally, while retaining the necessary functionalities that today’s mines provide to the military.

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