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Fisheries Technologies for Develloping Countries Report of an Ac! Hoc Pane] of the Board on Science and Technology for International Development Office of International Affairs National Research Council National Academy Press Washington, D.C. 1988
NationalAcademy Press · 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. · Washington, D. C. 20418 NOTICE: Tho project that is the subject of this report wee appro~cd by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Inatitute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencea and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Re~riow Committee consisting of mombora of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Acadomy of Engineoring, and the Inst it uto of Med icing . Tho National Acadomy of Sciencea is a private, nonprofit, aelf-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the geporal welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Acadomy has a mandate that roquiroa it to Adrian the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Franlc Presa'ia president of the National Academy of Sciences. Tho National Academy of Engineering wee oatabliahod in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Scioncoa, as a parallel organization of outstanding ongineora. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its membora, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the roaponaibility for advising the federal go~vernmont. The National Academy of Engineoring also sponsors engineering programs aimed at mooting national nooda, oncouragoa education and research, and recognizes the superior achiovomont of ongineora. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Inatitute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciencoa to secure the aorvicea of eminent members of appropriate profesaiona in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Inatitute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Scioncoa by its congressional charter to be an ad~risor to the federal government and, upon its own initiati~ro, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Samuel O. Thier is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council wee organisod by the National Acadomy of Sciencea in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy'a purposes of furthering knowledge and ad~riaing the federal go~rernmont. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing acnricoa to the government, the public, and the scientific and Engineoring communities. Tho Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Inatitute of Medicine. Dr. Franlc Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman respectively, of the National Research Council. Tho Board on Science and Technology for International Development (BOSTID) of the Office of International Affairs addresses a range of issues arising from the ways in which science and technology in developing countries can stimulate and complement the complex processes of social and economic develop- mont It o~reraeea a broad program of activities with scientific organisationa in developing countries, and mcam~nea ways to apply science and technology to problems of economic and aacial development through various programs, research grants, and mechaniama. BOSTID'a Advisory Committee on Technology In- novation publishes topical re~riewa of technical processes and biological resources of potential importance to developing countries. These proceedings have been prepared by the Board on Science and Technology for International Development, Office of International Affairs, National Rcecarch Council, under Grant No. DAN-5538-G- SS-1023-00, sponsored by the Agency for International Development Copioa to be shipped outside the United States are available from: Board on Science and Technology for International Development National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 USA Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 87-072035 ISBN-0-309-03788-3 Printed in the United States of America
PARTICIPANTS MEETING ON FISHERIES TECHNOLOGIES FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES John C. Sainsbury,* Department of Fisheries, Science and Technology, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 32484, Al-Khod, Sultanate of Oman, Chairman. Walter H. Adey,* Marine Systems Laboratory, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., USA. William ATevizon, Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, Florida, USA. Menachem Ben-Yami, fisheries consultant, Tiveon, Israel. James Bohnsack, Southeast Fisheries Center, Miami, Florida, USA. Stephen C. Drew,* Fisheries Technology Service, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. Judith E. Hansen,* Plant Sciences, Inc., Watsonville, California, USA. Edward Harper, Institute of Fisheries and Marine Technology, St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada. John M. Kubaryk,* Department of Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. Edward I,ipuma,* Anthropology Department, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA. Arthur J. Lyons,* Atlantic and Gulf Fishing Supply Corporation, Miami, Florida, USA (deceased). Donald McCreight, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island, USA. James P. McVey, National Sea Grant College Program, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Rockville, Maryland, USA. Sarah K. Meltzoff,* Rosenstie} School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA. Jeffrey J. Polovina,* Artificial Reef Program, National Marine Fisheries Service, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. John W. Shortall Ill, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida, USA (deceased). *National Research Council panelists ·.. 1i1
Norbert Simmons, Department of Fisheries, South Hampton, Bermuda. Timothy C. Visel, University of Connecticut, Groton, Connecticut, USA. Francis Williams,* Rosenstie} School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA. BOSTID STUDY STAFF M. G. C. McDonald Dow, Associate Director/Studies E. Griffin Shay, Senior Program Officer Daniel Suman, National Research Council Fellow F. R. Ruskin, Editor Hertha Hanu, Administrative Secretary Brenda D. Contee, Contributing Artist . . 1V
Preface The future of traditional fisheries will be shaped by the at- tention given to their special problems and by the recognition of their unique value. Declining stocks of readily accessible fish, competition from industrial fishermen, high operating costs, less than optimal gear and vessels, poor storage and marketing facil- ities, and little access to credit all tend to limit development for fishermen in the traditional sector. Culturally and economically acceptable technologies can help with some of these problems, but policy changes and interventions must also be part of the assistance strategy. The effort is worthwhile. Traditional fishermen are important contributors to the food supply in developing countries. They currently account for about one-quarter of the worId's total fish catch-an estimated 20 million tons of a tote] of 80 million. Al- though only about one-fifth of the fish caught in Latin America come from the traditional sector, in Asia these fishermen provide two-thirds of the catch, and in Africa, five-sixths. Traditional fishermen are economically important for other reasons as well: their boats and gear are locally produced, easily repaired with local parts, and represent a low capital investment; their fish-capture techniques and propulsion methods are both low v
V1 PREFACE energy consumers. Commercial fishing boats and gear, in con- trast, are largely imported, and therefore often require imported spare parts. Moreover, they require a high capital investment and consume large amounts of energy to reach and capture fish. There is also more wastage of by-catch from their operations. Many developing countries have ignored traditional fishermen and have concentrated their assistance in industrial fisheries. Tra- ditional fishermen have suffered more than neglect from this pol- icy: commercial trawlers operating near shore can simultaneously harvest large numbers of fish (including juveniles) and destroy spawning and breeding grounds. The adverse effects for the tradi- tional fishermen are both immediate and persistent; current stocks are depleted and the potential for recovery Is reduced. Developing countries could increase their fish harvest and im- prove the quality of life for their coastal dwellers by providing traditional fishing communities with access to modest technical and financial resources and by assuring protection for their fishing grounds. The evaluation and introduction of some of the technolo- gies described in this report could initiate this process. ****** Information in this report was largely derived through a meet- ing (participants Bated on pages in-iv) at the University of Mi- am~'s Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences in Miami, Florida, August 13-15, 1985. Additional data was oh tanned through correspondence with fisheries experts throughout the world.
Contents Overview - 1 1. Bow Design, Constructlon, and Propulslon 13 ~ an., . a. ~ unplug Methods Id Gear 4g · . . ArtlOcl~ Heed and Flab Aggregatlug Devlces 85 4. Couth Culture 115 Fish Processlug Ed Preservatlon 142 ,. vu