National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2002. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10522.
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Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals

VOLUME 2

Subcommittee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels

Committee on Toxicology

Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2002. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10522.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
500 Fifth Street., N.W. Washington, D.C. 20001

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This project was supported by Contract Nos. DAMD17-89-C-9086 and DAMD17-99-C-9049 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Army. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project.

International Standard Book Number 0-309-08511-X

Additional copies of this report are available from:
The National Academies Press
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Copyright 2002 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2002. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10522.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm.A.Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V.Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M.Alberts and Dr. Wm.A.Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council

www.national-academies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2002. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10522.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2002. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10522.
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SUBCOMMITTEE ON ACUTE EXPOSURE GUIDELINE LEVELS

Members

DANIEL KREWSKI, (Chair),

University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

EDWARD C.BISHOP,

Parsons Corporation, Fairfax, Virginia

JAMES V.BRUCKNER,

University of Georgia, Athens

JOHN DOULL,

University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City

DONALD E.GARDNER,

Inhalation Toxicology Associates, Inc., Raleigh, North Carolina

DAVID W.GAYLOR,

Gaylor and Associates, Little Rock, Arkansas

FLORENCE K.KINOSHITA,

Hercules Incorporated, Wilmington, Delaware

KANNAN KRISHNAN,

University of Montreal, Canada

STEPHEN U.LESTER,

Center for Health, Environment and Justice, Falls Church, Virginia

HARIHARA MEHENDALE,

University of Louisiana, Monroe

FRANZ OESCH,

University of Mainz, Mainz, Germany

RICHARD B.SCHLESINGER,

New York University School of Medicine, Tuxedo

CALVIN C.WILLHITE,

State of California, Berkeley

FREDERIK DE WOLFF,

Leiden University, Leiden, Netherlands

Staff

KULBIR S.BAKSHI, Program Director

KELLY A.CLARK, Editor

AIDA NEEL, Administrative Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2002. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10522.
×

COMMITTEE ON TOXICOLOGY

Members

BAILUS WALKER, JR. (Chair),

Howard University Medical Center and American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C.

MELVIN E.ANDERSEN,

Colorado State University, Denver

EDWARD C.BISHOP,

Parsons Corporation, Fairfax, Virginia

GARY P.CARLSON,

Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana

JANICE E.CHAMBERS,

Mississippi State University, Mississippi State

LEONARD CHIAZZE, JR.,

Georgetown University, Washington, D.C.

JUDITH A.GRAHAM,

American Chemistry Council, Arlington, Virginia

SIDNEY GREEN,

Howard University, Washington, D.C.

SAM KACEW,

Department of Pharmacology Faculty of Medicine and University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

NANCY KERKVLIET,

Oregon State University, Agricultural and Life Sciences, Corvallis

MERYL KAROL,

University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

STEPHEN U.LESTER,

Center for Health Environment and Justice, Falls Church, Virginia

HARIHARA MEHENDALE,

The University of Louisiana at Monroe, Monroe

DAVID H.MOORE,

Battelle Memorial Institute, Bel Air, Maryland

CALVIN C.WILLHITE,

State of California, Berkeley

LAUREN ZEISE,

California Environmental Protection Agency, Oakland

Staff

KULBIR S.BAKSHI, Program Director

SUSAN N.J.MARTEL, Senior Program Officer

ABIGAIL E.STACK, Program Officer

RUTH CROSSGROVE, Managing Editor

KELLY CLARK, Editorial Assistant

AIDA NEEL, Administrative Assistant

JESSICA BROCK, Senior Project Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2002. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10522.
×

BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY

Members

GORDON ORIANS (Chair),

University of Washington, Seattle

JOHN DOULL (Vice Chair),

University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City

DAVID ALLEN,

University of Texas, Austin

INGRID C.BURKE,

Colorado State University, Fort Collins

THOMAS BURKE,

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland

WILLIAM L.CHAMEIDES,

Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta

CHRISTOPHER B.FIELD,

Carnegie Institute of Washington, Stanford, California

DANIEL S.GREENBAUM,

Health Effects Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts

BRUCE D.HAMMOCK,

University of California, Davis

ROGENE HENDERSON,

Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, New Mexico

CAROL HENRY,

American Chemistry Council, Arlington, Virginia

ROBERT HUGGETT,

Michigan State University, East Lansing

JAMES H.JOHNSON,

Howard University, Washington, D.C.

JAMES F.KITCHELL,

University of Wisconsin, Madison

DANIEL KREWSKI,

University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario

JAMES A.MACMAHON,

Utah State University, Logan

WILLEM F.PASSCHIER,

Health Council of the Netherlands, The Hague

ANN POWERS,

Pace University School of Law, White Plains, New York

LOUISE M.RYAN,

Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts

KIRK SMITH,

University of California, Berkeley

LISA SPEER,

Natural Resources Defense Council, New York, New York

Senior Staff

JAMES J.REISA, Director

DAVID J.POLICANSKY, Associate Director and Senior Program Director for Applied Ecology

RAYMOND A.WASSEL, Senior Program Director for Environmental Sciences and Engineering

KULBIR BAKSHI, Program Director for the Committee on Toxicology

ROBERTA M.WEDGE, Program Director for Risk Analysis

K.JOHN HOLMES, Senior Staff Officer

SUSAN N.J.MARTEL, Senior Staff Officer

SUZANNE VAN DRUNICK, Senior Staff Officer

RUTH E.CROSSGROVE, Managing Editor

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2002. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10522.
×

OTHER REPORTS OF THE BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY

The Airliner Cabin Environment and Health of Passengers and Crew (2002)

Arsenic in Drinking Water: 2001 Update (2001)

Evaluating Vehicle Emissions Inspection and Maintenance Programs (2001)

Compensating for Wetland Losses Under the Clean Water Act (2001)

A Risk-Management Strategy for PCB-Contaminated Sediments (2001)

Toxicological Effects of Methylmercury (2000)

Strengthening Science at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Research-Management and Peer-Review Practices (2000)

Scientific Frontiers in Developmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment (2000)

Copper in Drinking Water (2000)

Ecological Indicators for the Nation (2000)

Waste Incineration and Public Health (1999)

Hormonally Active Agents in the Environment (1999)

Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter (3 reports, 1998–2001)

Ozone-Forming Potential of Reformulated Gasoline (1999)

Arsenic in Drinking Water (1999)

Brucellosis in the Greater Yellowstone Area (1998)

The National Research Council’s Committee on Toxicology: The First 50 Years (1997)

Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet (1996)

Upstream: Salmon and Society in the Pacific Northwest (1996)

Science and the Endangered Species Act (1995)

Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries (1995)

Biologic Markers (5 reports, 1989–1995)

Review of EPA’s Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (3 reports, 1994–1995)

Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment (1994)

Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children (1993)

Protecting Visibility in National Parks and Wilderness Areas (1993)

Dolphins and the Tuna Industry (1992)

Science and the National Parks (1992)

Assessment of the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Studies Program, Volumes I–IV (1991–1993)

Human Exposure Assessment for Airborne Pollutants (1991)

Rethinking the Ozone Problem in Urban and Regional Air Pollution (1991)

Decline of the Sea Turtles (1990)

Copies of these reports may be ordered from the National Academy Press

(800) 624–6242 or (202) 334–3313

www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2002. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10522.
×

Preface

Extremely hazardous substances (EHSs)1 can be released accidentally as a result of chemical spills, industrial explosions, fires, or accidents involving railroad cars and trucks transporting EHSs. The people in communities surrounding industrial facilities where EHSs are manufactured, used, or stored and in communities along the nation’s railways and highways are potentially at risk of being exposed to airborne EHSs during accidental releases. Pursuant to the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has identified approximately 400 EHSs on the basis of acute lethality data in rodents.

As part of its efforts to develop acute exposure guideline levels for EHSs, EPA, along with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), in 1991 requested that the National Research Council (NRC) develop guidelines for establishing such levels. In response to that request, the NRC published Guidelines for Developing Community Emergency Exposure Levels for Hazardous Substances in 1993.

Using the 1993 NRC guidelines report, the National Advisory Committee (NAC) on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances —consisting of members from EPA, the Department of Defense (DOD), the Department of Energy (DOE), the Department of Transportation (DOT), other

1  

As defined pursuant to the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2002. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10522.
×

federal and state governments, the chemical industry, academia, and other organizations from the private sector—has developed acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) for approximately 80 EHSs.

In 1998, EPA and DOD requested that the NRC independently review the AEGLs developed by NAC. In response to that request, the NRC organized within its Committee on Toxicology the Subcommittee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels, which prepared this report. This report is the second volume in the series Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals. It reviews the appropriateness of the AEGLs for five chemicals for their scientific validity, completeness, and consistency with the NRC guideline reports.

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Leonard Chiazze, Jr., of Georgetown University; Sidney Green of Howard University; Sam Kacew of the University of Ottawa; and Ralph Kodell of the National Center for Toxicological Research.

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Robert A.Goyer, appointed by the Division on Earth and Life Studies, who was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

The subcommittee gratefully acknowledges the valuable assistance provided by the following persons: Roger Garrett, Paul Tobin, Ernest Falke, and Letty Tahan (all from EPA); George Rusch (Honeywell, Inc.); William Bress (Vermont Department of Health); George Rogers (University of Louisville); Po Yung Lu, Cheryl Bast, and Sylvia Talmage (all from Oak Ridge National Laboratory). Aida Neel was the project assistant. Kelly Clark edited the report. We are grateful to James J.Reisa, director of the Board on Environ-

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2002. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10522.
×

mental Studies and Toxicology (BEST), for his helpful comments. The subcommittee particularly acknowledges Kulbir Bakshi, project director for the subcommittee, for bringing the report to completion. Finally, we would like to thank all members of the subcommittee for their expertise and dedicated effort throughout the development of this report.

Daniel Krewski, Chair

Subcommittee on Acute Exposure

Guideline Levels

Bailus Walker, Chair

Committee on Toxicology

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2002. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10522.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2002. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10522.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2002. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10522.
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Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals

Volume 2

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2002. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10522.
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The report reviews toxicity documents on five chemicals that can be released in the air from accidents at chemical plants, storage sites, or during transportation. The documents were prepared by the National Advisory Committee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances and were evaluated for their scientific validity, comprehensives, internal consistency, and conformance to the1993 guidelines report.

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