National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2005. Mineral Tolerance of Animals: Second Revised Edition, 2005. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11309.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2005. Mineral Tolerance of Animals: Second Revised Edition, 2005. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11309.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2005. Mineral Tolerance of Animals: Second Revised Edition, 2005. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11309.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2005. Mineral Tolerance of Animals: Second Revised Edition, 2005. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11309.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2005. Mineral Tolerance of Animals: Second Revised Edition, 2005. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11309.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2005. Mineral Tolerance of Animals: Second Revised Edition, 2005. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11309.
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MINERAL TOLERANCE OF ANIMALS S E C O N D R E V I S E D E D I T I O N , 2 0 0 5 Committee on Minerals and Toxic Substances in Diets and Water for Animals Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources Division on Earth and Life Studies

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS • 500 Fifth Street, N.W. • Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appro- priate balance. This study was supported by Contract/Grant No. 223-01-2460 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Center for Veterinary Medicine of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Department of Health and Human Services. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Mineral tolerance of animals / Committee on Minerals and Toxic Substances, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, Division on Earth and Life Studies.— 2nd rev. ed. p. cm. Rev. ed. of: Mineral tolerance of domestic animals / National Research Council (U.S.). Subcommittee on Mineral Toxicity in Animals. 1980. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-309-09654-5 (pbk.) — ISBN 0-309-55027-0 (pdf) 1. Veterinary toxicology. 2. Minerals in animal nutrition. I. National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Minerals and Toxic Substances. II. National Research Council (U.S.). Subcommittee on Mineral Toxicity in Animals. Mineral tolerance of domestic animals. SF757.5M56 2005 636.089′59—dc22 2005024930 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropoli- tan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2005 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the fur- therance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the Na- tional Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achieve- ments of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibil- ity given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scien- tific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

COMMITTEE ON MINERALS AND TOXIC SUBSTANCES IN DIETS AND WATER FOR ANIMALS KIRK C. KLASING, Chair, University of California, Davis JESSE P. GOFF, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Ames, Iowa JANET L. GREGER, University of Connecticut, Storrs JANET C. KING, Children’s Hospital Oakland Research Institute, Oakland, California SANTOSH P. LALL, Institute for Marine Biosciences, National Research Council of Canada, Halifax, Nova Scotia XINGEN G. LEI, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York JAMES G. LINN, University of Minnesota, St. Paul FORREST H. NIELSEN, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Grand Forks, North Dakota JERRY W. SPEARS, North Carolina State University, Raleigh Staff AUSTIN J. LEWIS, Study Director JAMIE S. JONKER, Study Director* DONNA LEE JAMEISON, Senior Program Assistant PEGGY TSAI, Research Associate *Through June 2004 v

BOARD ON AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES MAY R. BERENBAUM, Chair, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign SANDRA J. BARTHOLMEY, University of Illinois at Chicago ROGER N. BEACHY, Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, St. Louis, Missouri H. H. CHENG, University of Minnesota, St. Paul W. R. (REG) GOMES, University of California, Oakland ARTURO GOMEZ-POMPA, University of California, Riverside PERRY R. HAGENSTEIN, Institute for Forest Analysis, Planning, and Policy, Wayland, Massachusetts JEAN HALLORAN, Consumer Policy Institute/Consumers Union, Yonkers, New York HANS R. HERREN, Millennium Institute, Arlington, Virginia DANIEL P. LOUCKS, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York WHITNEY MACMILLAN, Cargill, Incorporated, Minneapolis, Minnesota BRIAN W. MCBRIDE, University of Guelph, Guelph, Canada TERRY L. MEDLEY, E. I. duPont de Nemours & Co., Wilmington, Delaware OLE NIELSEN, Ontario Veterinary College, Spruce Grove, Canada ROBERT PAARLBERG, Wellesley College, Watertown, Massachusetts ALICE N. PELL, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York BOBBY PHILLS, Florida A&M University, Tallahassee PEDRO A. SANCHEZ, The Earth Institute at Columbia University, Palisades, New York SONYA B. SALAMON, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign B. L. TURNER, II, Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts TILAHUN D. YILMA, University of California, Davis JAW-KAI WANG, University of Hawaii, Honolulu Staff ROBIN A. SCHOEN, Director CHARLOTTE KIRK BAER, Director* KAREN L. IMHOF, Administrative Assistant *Through October 2004 vi

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Excess minerals in the diet and water of animals can have an adverse effect on animal health, consumers, and the environment. Preventing unsafe mineral exposure is a fundamental part of animal nutrition and management. At the request of the Food and Drug Administration, the National Academies convened a committee to make recommendations on animal tolerances and toxic dietary levels, updating a 1980 report on mineral tolerance in domestic animals. Based on a review of current scientific data and information, the report sets a "maximum tolerable level" (MTL) for each mineral as it applies to the diets of farm animals, poultry, and fish. The report includes an analysis of the effects of toxic levels in animal diets, and it identifies elements that pose potential human health concerns. The report recommends research that includes a better characterization of animal exposure to minerals through feedstuffs; a better understanding of the relationship between mineral concentrations in feed and water and the levels in consumer products such as meat, milk, and eggs; and more research on the maximum tolerable level of minerals for aquatic and companion animals.

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