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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Waste Retrieval Status." National Research Council. 2006. Tank Waste Retrieval, Processing, and On-site Disposal at Three Department of Energy Sites: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11618.
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Appendix F
Waste Retrieval Status

TABLE F-1 Status of Tank Waste Retrieval Operations at the Three Sites

Site

Tank Identifier

Nominal Tank Capacity (gallons)

Volume of the heel (gallons) (percentage of initial volume)

Radioactivity in the heel (percentage of initial radioactivity)

Residual Waste Retrieval Technology Used

Comments

Savannah River Site (51 tanks)

Tank 16a

1.06 million

9.5 kg solidsa

830 Ci (30.7 TBq)

Water washing, chemical cleaning

Completed to the limit of technologies. Most of the radioactivity is due to insoluble strontium-90 inventory. The tank annulus requires additional cleaning.

 

Tank 17b

1.3 million

2,200 gallons sludge

2,400 Ci (89 TBq)

Water washing, Sluicing and pumping

Completed (closed)

 

Tank 20b

1.3 million

1,000 gallons sludge

500 Ci (18.5 TBq)

Sluicing and pumping

Completed (closed)

 

Tank 18b

1.3 million

4,300 gallons wet solids

27,600 Ci (1.02 PBq)

Sluicing and pumping

Completed. Most of the radioactivity is due to cesium-137 and barium-137 trapped in residual zeolites (46% of the heel volume and ~88% of the total curies). Strontium-90 and yttrium-90 make up another ~10% of the radioactivity

 

Tank 19b

1.3 million

15,100 gallons wet solids

96,000 Ci (3.6 PBq)

Sluicing and pumping

Most of the radioactivity is due to cesium-137 and barium-137 trapped in residual zeolites (66% of the heel volume and ~99% of the total radioactivity)

Hanford

C-106c

530,000

2,768 gallons (370 cubic feet)

136,700 Ci (5.06 PBq)

Modified sluicing, oxalic acid dissolution

Completed to the limit of technologies. Most of the radioactivity is due to insoluble strontium-90 inventory

 

C-203d

55,000

138 gallons (18.5 cubic feet)

36 Ci (1.3 TBq)

Vacuum retrieval system

Completed

 

C-202e

55,000

147 gallons

Results not available

Vacuum retrieval system

Completed

 

S-102f

758,000

321,000 gallons (in progress)

Results not available

Modified sluicing, saltcake dissolution

Retrieval still under way

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Waste Retrieval Status." National Research Council. 2006. Tank Waste Retrieval, Processing, and On-site Disposal at Three Department of Energy Sites: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11618.
×

Site

Tank Identifier

Nominal Tank Capacity (gallons)

Volume of the heel (gallons) (percentage of initial volume)

Radioactivity in the heel (percentage of initial radioactivity)

Residual Waste Retrieval Technology Used

Comments

Hanford

S-112f

758,000

23,000 gallons

Results not available

Modified sluicing, saltcake dissolution, Salt Mantis

Retrieval complete to the limit of technology for modified sluicing and saltcake dissolution; additional technology (Salt Mantis) deployed, retrieval still in progress

Idahog

WM-180

300,000

7,600 gallons liquidsg

542 kg solids

1,047 Ci

(38.7 TBq)

Pumping and water washing

 

 

WM-181

300,000

7,300 gallons liquidsg

246 kg solids

475 Ci

(17.6 TBq)

Pumping and water washing

 

 

WM-182

300,000

6500 gallons liquidsg

1238 kg solids

2,394 Ci

(88.6 TBq)

Pumping and water washing

 

 

WM-183

300,000

8000 gallons liquidsg

702 kg solids

1,363 Ci

(50.4 TBq)

Pumping and water washing

 

 

WM-184

300,000

3100 gallons liquidsg

558 kg solids

1,077 Ci

(39.8 TBq)

Pumping and water washing

 

 

WM-185

300,000

5800 gallons liquidsg

720 kg solids

1,391 Ci +

3,850 Ci in the sandpad (194 TBq )

Pumping and water washing

 

 

WM-186

300,000

6,600 gallons liquidsg

334 kg solids

646 Ci

(23.9 TBq)

Pumping and water washing

 

 

WM-103

30,000

19 kg solids

37 Ci

(1.4 TBq)

Pumping and water washing

Conservative estimates of solids based on a biological film layer at the bottom of the tank

 

WM-104

30,000

19 kg solids

37 Ci

(1.4 TBq)

Pumping and water washing

Conservative estimates of solids based on a biological film layer at the bottom of the tank

 

WM-105

30,000

19 kg solids

37 Ci

(1.4 TBq)

Pumping and water washing

Conservative estimates of solids based on a biological film layer at the bottom of the tank

 

WM-106

30,000

19 kg solids

37 Ci

(1.4 TBq)

Pumping and water washing

Conservative estimates of solids based on a biological film layer at the bottom of the tank

NOTE: Only tanks that had most waste retrieved at the time of writing (December 2005) are shown; other tanks may be in process. The table has been fact-checked by the three sites.

a Fowler, 1981.

b DOE-SRS, 2005a.

c Hewitt, and Sams, 2005.

d Quintero, 2005b.

e. Quintero, 2005b.

f Dodd, 2005.

g DOE-ID, 2005a.

h A volume of flush water is left in the tanks after the last wash cycle, to allow for sampling, keep any remaining solids in a state to allow further removal during the grouting phase, and allow enough volume to permit restart of the transfer jets during tank grouting. During the tank grouting phase,the transfer jets will be operated to remove the remaining liquid and whatever solid particles come with it.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Waste Retrieval Status." National Research Council. 2006. Tank Waste Retrieval, Processing, and On-site Disposal at Three Department of Energy Sites: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11618.
×

TABLE F-2 Summary of Main Waste Retrieval Tools in DOE’s Toolbox

Mobilization or Collection Technique

Tool Considered or Developed

Tool Tested

Tool Deployed

“Wet” technologies

 

 

 

Mixing or sluicing technologies

 

 

 

Low pressure (<1000 psi)

 

 

Slurry pumps (several SRS tanks); waterbrush (SRS Tank 17); Flygt Mixer (SRS Tanks 17 and 19); bladed agitators (several SRS tanks— small processing vessels); Advanced Design Mixer Pump (SRS Tank 18); Hanford C-103 Sluicer (Hanford Tank C-103); Hanford C-106 Sluicer (Hanford Tank C-106);washball or directional nozzle wash system (INL tanks)

Moderate pressure (1,000 < psi < 3,000)

 

 

Borehole miner (several ORNL tanks); water mouse (SRS Tank 17)

High-pressure (>3,000 psi)

 

 

Hydrolaser/hydrolance (SRS Tank 19); Salt Mantis (Hanford S-112); Confined Sluicing End Effector (CSEE; ORNL); bilateral sluicers (SRS Type I Tanks)

Pulsating mixing devices

 

AEA Technology Power Fluidics (cold tested at Hanford)

 

 

 

Russian Pulsating Mixer Pump (PMP) (tested at PNNL and at ORNL)

 

Chemical cleaning

 

 

 

Using sluicing

 

 

Modified sluicing and acid dissolution (Hanford tank C-106)

Using mixers

 

 

Oxalic acid (SRS Tanks 16 and 24)

Dry or semidry technologies

 

 

 

Vacuum

 

 

Vacuum retrieval system (Hanford C-202, C-203, C-201)

Scarifier or grinder

Rail or pneumatic wheel-based systems used in the mining industry (never tested or deployed in DOE tanks); dry retrieval system (considered for Hanford Tank C-104 but never deployed)

 

Burnishing tool (deployed at West Valley); scarifier (deployed at ORNL using both the Houdini™ and the Modified Light Duty Utility Arm (MLDUA)

Mechanical conveyance systems

 

 

 

Deployment devices or delivery tools

 

 

 

Simple mast

Delphinus (never deployed)

 

Vacuum retrieval system (Hanford Tanks C-202, C-203, C-201), Mast Tool Delivery System (West Valley Tank 8D-1)

Multijoined arm

SRS Crawler (designed for deployment in SRS Tank 19 but never deployed), VAC TRAX (never deployed), Pit Hog (never deployed), ESG/LATA Trac-Pump (never deployed)

EMMA (tested for use at Fernald but never deployed), ReTRIEVR (tested for use at Fernald but never deployed), Tarzan (partially built for use at West Valley but never completed)

Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) and MLDUA (Oak Ridge)

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Waste Retrieval Status." National Research Council. 2006. Tank Waste Retrieval, Processing, and On-site Disposal at Three Department of Energy Sites: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11618.
×

Mobilization or Collection Technique

Tool Considered or Developed

Tool Tested

Tool Deployed

In-tank vehicle

 

ARD (never deployed in a tank but used in SRS B-Area solvent tanks)

Houdini™ (deployed at ORNL), Scarab-3 (deployed at ORNL)

Combined systems

 

 

 

Vacuum plus in-tank vehicle

 

Mobile retrieval system (tested at the Hanford Cold Test Facility)

 

Scarifier plus in-tank vehicle

Grinding mechanism used in combination with the Delphinus arm

 

Scarifier deployed via Houdini™ (ORNL)

Vacuum plus surface system

 

 

Waste Dislodging and Conveyance System (deployed at ORNL)

NOTES: Some tools have been considered or developed in a laboratory setting. Some tools have been tested in a cold test facility. Some tools have been deployed in actual waste tanks (location in parenthesis). Deployment implies previous development and cold testing as well. Status indicates if and where device was deployed or tested. INL = Idaho National Laboratory; ORNL = Oak Ridge National Laboratory; PNNL = Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; SRS = Savannah River Site.

SOURCES: Davis, 1998; Bogen et al., 1999; DOE-TFA, 2000a; Bamberger et al., 2001; Burks, 2005; DOE-SRS, 2005a.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Waste Retrieval Status." National Research Council. 2006. Tank Waste Retrieval, Processing, and On-site Disposal at Three Department of Energy Sites: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11618.
×
Page 159
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Waste Retrieval Status." National Research Council. 2006. Tank Waste Retrieval, Processing, and On-site Disposal at Three Department of Energy Sites: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11618.
×
Page 160
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Waste Retrieval Status." National Research Council. 2006. Tank Waste Retrieval, Processing, and On-site Disposal at Three Department of Energy Sites: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11618.
×
Page 161
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Waste Retrieval Status." National Research Council. 2006. Tank Waste Retrieval, Processing, and On-site Disposal at Three Department of Energy Sites: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11618.
×
Page 162
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DOE Tank Waste: How clean is clean enough? The U.S. Congress asked the National Academies to evaluate the Department of Energy's (DOE's) plans for cleaning up defense-related radioactive wastes stored in underground tanks at three sites: the Hanford Site in Washington State, the Savannah River Site in South Carolina, and the Idaho National Laboratory. DOE plans to remove the waste from the tanks, separate out high-level radioactive waste to be shipped to an off-site geological repository, and dispose of the remaining lower-activity waste onsite. The report concludes that DOE's overall plan is workable, but some important challenges must be overcome—including the removal of residual waste from some tanks, especially at Hanford and Savannah River. The report recommends that DOE pursue a more risk-informed, consistent, participatory, and transparent for making decisions about how much waste to retrieve from tanks and how much to dispose of onsite. The report offers several other detailed recommendations to improve the technical soundness of DOE's tank cleanup plans.

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