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9 Addressing Business Needs T wo Title VI programs focus on meeting business needs for interna- tional knowledge and foreign language skills: the Business and Inter- national Education (BIE) Program, created in 1980, and the Centers for International Business Education and Research (CIBER) Program, cre- ated in 1988. The BIE program aims to encourage innovation, helping a range of higher education institutions, including two-year colleges, to develop international and foreign language capacity in their business pro- grams. To carry this program out, the U.S. Department of Education (ED) provides two-year seed grants. In contrast, the CIBER Program is designed to create and sustain international business curricula and faculty at the nationâs top-ranked business schools. To advance this goal, ED provides larger and more sustained CIBER grants (averaging about $340,000 per year), lasting four years rather than two (until the most recent grant compe- tition, CIBER grants were awarded for three years) (Ruther, 2006). CIBER grantees are also charged with being âregional resources to business.â This chapter focuses on these two programs, given their particular focus on business needs. As with other key areas, the available evidence does not allow a rigor- ous assessment of business-related outcomes, such as the programsâ impact on enhancing the international competitiveness of U.S. businesses or im- proving global understanding in the business community. Similarly, it is not possible to determine the extent to which the two programs may have improved institutional capacity in international business education, given the lack of information about baseline institutional capacity or quality in international business education. 182
ADDRESSING BUSINESS NEEDS 183 The programs were launched during a time of intense international competition that affected not only U.S. businesses, but also business schools. In the early 1970s, well before Congress created BIE and CIBER, the As- sembly of Collegiate Schools of Business recommended that business school accreditation standards be changed to require a more international empha- sis (Biddle, 2002). In 1980, this accreditation requirement was added. In a mid-1990s study of internationalization at large research universities, some business school faculty and administrators felt that, because of their need to respond to the needs of prospective employers, they were ahead of the rest of the university in internationalizing (Biddle, 2002). The changing context of U.S. business education makes it difficult to isolate the effects of the BIE and CIBER programs. Given the nature of the available evidence, this chapter, like others, focuses primarily on the activities and outputs of the BIE and CIBER pro- grams. It begins with a discussion of mechanisms in the CIBER Program to facilitate coordination and collaboration and highlight accomplishments, featuring reported CIBER activities in key areas, such as homeland security, foreign languages in the business curriculum, knowledge about interna- tional trade and competitiveness, and institutional capacity. The chapter then moves to the BIE Program and discussion of the available evidence related to its accomplishments in the areas of infusing foreign languages and area studies into the business curriculum and improving outreach and dissemination. Each of these areas is an indirect indicator of the programsâ ability to respond to business needs. CIBER PROGRAM The vast majority (95.7 percent) of CIBER awards are to institutions classified as primarily research. Most CIBER grants are awarded to top- tier business schools, in keeping with the lawâs goal of supporting national resources in international business education and foreign languages. In its 2006 rankings of graduate business schools, U.S. News & World Re- port (2006b) identified 51 top schools (with a 3-way tie for 49th place). Among the 30 business schools with CIBER grants in 2006, 20 (66 percent) were included in the top 51 schools. Among the 10 other institutions that received CIBER awards, several offer nationally ranked undergraduate business degrees (U.S. News & World Report, 2006a). These institutions include the University of South Carolina, Florida International University, and the University of Hawaii-Manoa. â In 2006, accreditation required that the business programs âprepare students for careers in the global contextâ (American Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business In- ternational, 2006, p. 9).
184 INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION AND FOREIGN LANGUAGES CIBER Network A unique feature of the CIBER Program, in comparison to other Title VI and Fulbright-Hays (Title VI/FH) programs, is the extent to which grantees share information and best practices. The 31 centers have created a strong yet flexible network that supports collaboration, communication, and shared learning. Legislative and Administrative Supports The legislative mandate in Title VI and EDâs administration of the program have encouraged the centers to collaborate through the CIBER network. The first part of the CIBER mandate focuses the center inward, on strengthening its universityâs capacity as a national resource for interna- tional business education, while the second part focuses the center outward, toward businesses and other institutions of higher education. In addition, the law mandates each center to establish an advisory board of business and government stakeholders. These two legal requirements for an outward focus encourage the centers to work together to serve the regional and na- tional business community (Ruther, 2006). ED program administrators have encouraged collaboration among grantees by developing an essential mechanism underlying the CIBER net- workâthe CIBERweb Internet portalâand suggesting topics to highlight (see below.) The ED provided financial support to the Purdue University CIBER to develop the website portal in 1995. Today, Michigan State Uni- versity hosts CIBERweb, with funding from the universityâs CIBER grant, along with contributions from all of the other centers. A committee of ED program administrators and CIBER representatives oversees the website. CIBERweb provides easy access to all past and current CIBER activities, organized into six broad areas: research, foreign language development, business outreach, faculty development, academic program development, and study abroad (University of Connecticut, 2005). Stable funding and few application priorities may also contribute to the centersâ ability to focus outward on the activities of other grantees (Ruther, 2006). Initially, in 1989, there were only six CIBERs. With additional fund- ing from Congress the number of centers steadily grew, reaching the current level of 31 centers in 2006. Although CIBERs have been added in each competition, the universities involved have remained relatively stable. In the most recent grant competition, all but one center successfully competed â See Part B of the Title VI statute, included as Attachment A of Appendix A. It can be accessed at http://www.nap.edu by searching for International Education and Foreign Languages. â The portal can be accessed at http://ciberweb.msu.edu.
ADDRESSING BUSINESS NEEDS 185 for a new award, and one new university was added. (By comparison, there are four times as many NRC grantees and more change in grantees from one competition to the next.) In addition, ED has attached fewer priorities to recent requests for CIBER grant applications than it has to requests for other programs (see Appendix C). Association for International Business Education and Research (AIBER) In addition to collaborating through CIBERweb, all 31 centers belong to AIBER, a nonprofit organization. The association is supported through dues paid from private resources of the host CIBER institutions and does not receive any federal funding (Ruther, 2006). AIBER surveys the centers annually, compiling data on activities and outputs, such as the numbers of international business courses taught, the number of courses with interna- tional emphasis created or revised, and the number of faculty international- ization workshops held. In general, this is the same information submitted by CIBER institutions to ED via the grantee reporting system. However, the data collected by the centers goes back further and is currently more accessible to CIBERs than the data submitted to ED. Network Activities The CIBER network shares and compiles information through CIBER- web, AIBER, regular conferences, and written reports. Periodically, the ED program officer asks a given CIBER to survey other centers about a particu- lar issue and prepare a report that is then published on CIBERweb. Some of the reports summarize CIBER activities and accomplishments over time (University of Connecticut, 2006), whereas others focus on ED priorities for the program (Purdue University, 2006). In addition, the network sponsors national conferences on topics of interest to all. Program Highlights The CIBER network has produced numerous documents highlighting accomplishments based on data and programmatic information provided by individual grantees. Much of the discussion below is based on two of these documents, one that addresses homeland security and one that out- lines the programâs accomplishments during its first 15 years. Information from a study that compared CIBER and non-CIBER business degree pro- grams and from the committeeâs site visits is also included. The program highlights presented relate to homeland security, foreign languages in the business curriculum, an enhanced body of relevant knowledge, and im- proved institutional capacity.
186 INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION AND FOREIGN LANGUAGES Homeland Security and U.S. International Competitiveness The terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, raised grave concerns throughout the U.S. business community. CIBERs responded with a series of activities designed to investigate and address the challenges of ensuring security for U.S. businesses while maintaining the benefits of international trade. In 2005, as ED announced an invitational priority for grant applica- tions focusing on homeland security and international competitiveness for the 2006-2010 grants, the CIBER network issued a report on homeland security projects carried out from 2003 to 2005 (Grosse, 2006). The CIBER homeland security report documents a range of activities, from convening conferences to research on the costs and risks that firms face, to development of new business school courses on national security and competitiveness (Grosse, 2006). According to this report, the centers plan a sustained program of research and teaching on homeland security and U.S. international competitiveness. The goal is to help U.S. firms and the U.S. government to develop comprehensive, cost-effective responses to the threat of terrorism. The presence of the strong CIBER network, which facilitates informa- tion sharing, may have played an important role in this rapid response to a new and unexpected national priority. Foreign Languages in the Business Curriculum A recent comparative study of CIBER and non-CIBER business degree programs indicates that CIBER grants have contributed to infusing foreign languages into the business school curriculum. CIBER schools offered in- struction in more languages (an average of 4.4 languages per school) than non-CIBER schools (an average of 2.1 languages per school). CIBER fund- ing also appeared particularly important for support in teaching the less commonly taught languages: seven of the CIBER schools offered Chinese, compared with one non-CIBER school, and eight CIBER schools offered Japanese, compared with only three non-CIBER schools (Folks, 2003). The CIBER report on the first 15 years of the program (University of Connecticut, 2005) also highlights the contributions of the CIBER Program, indicating that grantee institutions had conducted 4 types of activities to promote foreign language in the business curriculum: Teaching foreign languages for business purposes.â In 2003-2004, CIBER institutions taught 15 foreign languages, including several languages desig- â The most recent competition also included an invitational priority for innovative ap- proaches to teaching languages in the business context.
ADDRESSING BUSINESS NEEDS 187 nated as critical in the proposed National Security Language Initiative, such as Arabic, Chinese, and Russian. Grantees offered 224 business language courses to undergraduates and 571 courses to graduate students. Brigham Young University offered 11 languages, the highest among the CIBERs. Faculty development in teaching foreign languages for business purÂ poses.â Many CIBERs offer workshops preparing foreign language faculty to teach business Chinese, business Portuguese, or other languages. For example, the University of South Carolinaâs undergraduate business CIBER presents a six-day workshop for Spanish language faculty. Since 1990, over 250 faculty members, including faculty from historically black colleges and universities, have attended the annual workshops. In addition, the CIBER network sponsors an annual conference on teaching business languages that generally draws about 200 attendees each year. Development of language teaching and testing materials.â CIBERs are actively engaged in developing instructional materials and in professional development to enhance the teaching of business languages. Many of the materials support distance learning, such as the University of Texasâs free online video clips and materials on business culture, Spanish, and Portu- guese. From 1989 to 2004, CIBER universities taught over 7,300 com- mercial language courses to over 140,000 students, while engaging over 17,800 language faculty in business language workshops. Language materi- als developed by CIBERs enhanced commercial language courses, affecting an estimated 2.4 million students. Research on business languages.â Two current or former CIBER grantees publish research on business language teaching and learning. The Thunder- bird Center for International Business at the Garvin School of International Management, a CIBER at the time of this writing, publishes The Journal of Language for International Business, a refereed journal published twice annually. Purdue University annually publishes Global Business Languages, with theoretical and practical articles and book reviews. Enhanced Body of Knowledge CIBER grants to higher education institutions support research that de- velops new knowledge about international trade and competitiveness issues. The grants also help universities disseminate this new knowledge to the business community, K-12 education, and the public. In addition, CIBER grants develop the international and foreign language knowledge of stu- dents, who bring that knowledge to the business world after graduation.
188 INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION AND FOREIGN LANGUAGES Research.â All of the CIBERs support research on international and area business issues (University of Connecticut, 2005). Often, grantees organize competitions among faculty for minigrants supporting international travel and research. In addition to supporting research based on faculty inter- ests, some CIBER research projects focus on particular themes of national interest. For example, the CIBER network project on homeland security and U.S. international competitiveness discussed above includes research on such questions as the costs of protecting U.S. businesses from terrorist attacks and immigration of skilled foreign nationals. The Duke University CIBERâs multiyear offshoring research initiative includes an ongoing survey of hundreds of companies to clarify the extent of offshoring and percep- tions of offshoring. In its first 15 years, its CIBER funding supported over 5,200 research projects by international business faculty and Ph.D. can- didates. Research results have been disseminated in over 1,000 research conferences. Dissemination.â By law, every CIBER advisory board meets at least an- nually. The advisory board facilitates two-way communication, allowing business leaders to provide feedback to the business faculty on the quality and usefulness of their program, while also allowing business faculty to brief the business community on important issues. A recent survey found that the five most frequent functions of CIBER advisory boards included (University of Connecticut, 2005): 1. Serve to exchange information between the university, faculty, and business community/government. 2. Provide business advice to the university on new or revised cur- ricula and programs. 3. Identify additional services and activities to be provided by the CIBER. 4. Give feedback from the business community to the university re- garding the quality and effectiveness of existing curricula. 5. Develop strategies for obtaining financial support for the CIBER. CIBER grantees typically focus their dissemination on unique, special- ized niches. This may be because their network makes them aware of other CIBER activities as well as because of their mandate to meet the needs of local and regional business. For example, the University of Washington offers the Global Business Breakfast Series for local businesses in partner- ship with the World Affairs Council, and the University of Hawaii partners with the Pacific Basin Economic Council, the Hawaii World Trade Center, and various government agencies to convene an annual Hawaii Business Forum each spring. The University of Florida CIBER, with only a small
ADDRESSING BUSINESS NEEDS 189 local business community, has emphasized translating the universityâs ex- pertise on international business into programs and publications targeted to state, national, and international business needs. It has worked with the U.S. Department of Agricultureâs Agricultural Extension Service to educate Florida and U.S. farmers about overseas markets, and it publishes an an- nual report on the Latin American Business Environment (University of Connecticut, 2005). Over the past 15 years, CIBERs offered over 4,000 business semi- nars, conferences, and workshops attended by an estimated 200,800 par- ticipants. In 2003-2004, CIBER schools offered 534 executive masterâs in business administration programs with an international focus, and 28,488 executives were enrolled in these programs. Among these programs, 70 percent included overseas experience for participating executives. In ad- dition, CIBERs disseminate information by publishing scholarly research and providing newsletters, searchable databases, and other resources to the business community. In 2002-2003, CIBER-furnished websites reported nearly 60 million combined hits, with a median of 1.9 million hits per CIBER (University of Connecticut, 2005). Graduate placements.â CIBERs report that they awarded 11,000 masterâs degrees with an international focus in 2003-2004 (University of Con- necticut, 2005). Reflecting the difficulty of tracking studentsâ activities after graduation (see Chapter 6), CIBERs indicated not knowing where one-third of the graduates had gone. However, they reported that nearly one-half of the masterâs graduates had been placed in a variety of industries, includ- ing consulting, energy/chemicals, autos, and pharmaceutical/biotechnology. CIBERs appear to have greater success in tracking outcomes for doctoral students. They indicated that 300 doctoral students graduated with inter- national business expertise in 2003-2004, and outcomes for 17 percent of these were unknown. The largest group of new doctoral graduates (62 percent) had entered academia, where they will prepare future international business leaders. Others went to work for private firms, nonprofit organiza- tions, state or local government, the federal government, foreign govern- ment, and international organizations (University of Connecticut, 2005). A representative of AIBER illustrated the way in which graduate place- ments enhance knowledge of international trade and competitiveness issues using Paul Gaspari, a graduate of the Temple University CIBERâs inter- national business program, as an example (Birch, 2006). Gaspari is now employed by the U.S. Export Assistance Center in Philadelphia, where he advises small and medium-sized businesses on how to make overseas sales. During site visits, universities also cited numerous examples of former stu- dents whose positions made use of their international expertise.
190 INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION AND FOREIGN LANGUAGES Institutional Capacity A central goal of the CIBER Program is to create ânational resourcesâ for teaching of international business. Since the programâs inception, the CIBERs have conducted many activities aimed at increasing their own in- stitutionsâ capacity in international business education, while also providing resources and support to other business schools. Between 1989 and 2004, the CIBERs reported that they created or enhanced over 4,000 international business courses and created or revised 780 new degrees, majors, and con- centrations. In total, over that time period, about 903,000 students took over 28,450 courses with an international business emphasis (University of Connecticut, 2005). To help doctoral students at non-CIBER institutions, seven CIBER schools created the Doctoral Internationalization Consor- tium, which provides training in the internationalization of seven different academic disciplines. Another consortium of 11 CIBER schools offers an annual seminar for doctoral students in business and other fields that seek to incorporate an international dimension in their research and teaching (University of Connecticut, 2005). A study by Folks (2003) provides some additional evidence that CIBER funding has contributed to improved institutional capacity and quality in international business education. MBA programs at schools with a CIBER were more likely than those without a CIBER to require international business courses, offer advanced level international business classes, and, as discussed above, offer a greater variety of languages (see also Chapter 5). During site visits, universities reported that CIBER resources played an important role in their international activities, providing support for faculty to conduct international research and the development of international cur- riculum or programs (see Box 9-1 for illustrations.) Some students said that the presence of the CIBER attracted them to the business program. BIE PROGRAM Since 1983, the first year of funding, ED has awarded nearly 600 two- year BIE grants. In comparison to CIBER grants, the BIE grant amounts are smaller, averaging $75,000 per year, and are targeted to a much more diverse group of colleges and universities, including community colleges, technical schools, historically black colleges and universities, and Hispanic- serving institutions as well as four-year research universities (Murphrey, 2006). The BIE Program has the greatest reach of all Title VI programs into institutions classified as masterâs, baccalaureate, or associateâs degree- granting institutions, with two-thirds (65.4 percent) of FY 2004 awards going to these institutions.
ADDRESSING BUSINESS NEEDS 191 BOX 9-1 CIBER Programs for Undergraduate and Graduate Business Training Ohio State University Students in Ohio State Universityâs Fisher College of Business programs are eligible to participate in an emerging markets field study course. They begin by studying a world region, then locate specific companies, and target them as case studies. Then the students and faculty visit the region (for about 12 days) and the companies under study and prepare a case study and strategic plan when they return to campus. In comments to the committee, students who had conducted field studies in Thailand and Brazil said the experience abroad had had a greater impact on their education than any other program. They indicated that simply the opportunity to see the differences in the way a plant in another part of the world operates was eye-opening. Two of the students emphasized that, because of full-time work and family obligations, a longer visit abroad would have been impossible. They were so grateful for the opportunity, they said, that they would always support the Fisher School. The Business School ranked 22nd in the 2007 U.S. News & World Report business school rankings (U.S. News & World Report, 2006b). San Diego State University (SDSU) At SDSU, the undergraduate business degree is extremely popular. With fewer openings than applicants, students must maintain a high grade point average and meet other requirements to enter and stay in the program. Once enrolled, each student selects a language emphasis, which then pairs with one of six world regions as a focus for his or her study. After completing required coursework in business, 32 units of language study, and area studies related to this region, the student spends one semester at an exchange university near the end of their five-year program. While abroad, the student takes courses in both international business and language, paying their SDSU fees. Equal numbers of business stu- dents from these institutions spend a semester at SDSU. Originally created with CIBER funds, the program has grown to the point that it is now self-sustaining, with about 800 students enrolled. According to CIBER administrators, graduates of this program command salaries averaging $10,000 more per year than graduates from the regular business program. SOURCES: Committee site visits (2006) and review of university websites; U.S. News & World Report (2006b). Infusion of Foreign Languages and Area Studies into the Business Curriculum The assistant director of the Texas A&M University CIBER reported that BIE grantees, like CIBERs, frequently emphasize building institutional capacity and quality in international business education (Murphrey, 2006).
192 INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION AND FOREIGN LANGUAGES Colleges and universities use BIE funds to develop new international busi- ness courses and to incorporate international content into existing courses. Many grantees have established formal international business education programs, including certificate programs, and undergraduate majors and minors. They also use funds for faculty development, sponsoring workshops and seminars for business, foreign language, and area studies faculty. ED supports a shared web portal for the BIE Program, hosted by Grand Valley State University, which is designed to include information about grantees, courses, and events, among other things. Perhaps because of the shorter time frame for BIE grants, the content of the website is not as complete or as extensive as the CIBER webpage. The primary source of information about the BIE Program is a 2002 survey by Linda V. Gerber, a faculty member affiliated with the CIBER at Texas A&M University. The survey, which included individuals involved in 152 BIE awards between 1989 and 1997, was designed to demon- strate effectiveness in response to the Government Performance and Results Act. The survey focused on typical BIE activities: faculty development, course development, curriculum development, and outreach to business and academia. Faculty Development All survey respondents reported at least some faculty development activities, involving an average of 30 faculty members at each institution. The most frequent activity was faculty workshops, followed by support for faculty members to attend professional conferences and to lead inter- national study trips and internships. Showing the linkages between CIBER and BIE grantees, over 60 percent of respondents reported sending faculty to CIBER-sponsored programs. They also reported that they frequently funded individual faculty research projects, indicating that nearly 45 per- cent of these projects resulted in publications. In addition, over 60 percent of respondents used BIE funding to support individual faculty research. Course Development Over 80 percent of respondents said BIE funds were used to support faculty in revising existing courses or creating new international business courses. Survey respondents reported that nearly 130,000 students were enrolled in courses that had been developed or revised with BIE support, an average of nearly 1,900 per institution. â See http://www.gvsu.edu/bie/index.cfm?fuseaction=home.first.
ADDRESSING BUSINESS NEEDS 193 Curriculum Development Sixty-five percent of respondents reported developing new programs. Most frequently, BIE grantees had developed specialized concentrations in MBA programs, such as international accounting or global technology management. Community colleges developed new associate degree pro- grams in business or trade. Outreach Most BIE respondents reported agreements with multiple partners. Most frequently, grantees reported agreements with a trade promotion organiza- tion, including both governmental organizations, such as the U.S. Department of Commerce Export Assistance Centers, and quasi-governmental organiza- tions, such as world trade councils. The next most common type of partner- ship was with state and local economic development organizations. The respondents indicated that, in collaboration with these partners, their most frequent activity was consulting with individual companies on trade and exporting issues, followed by business internships for students and faculty (Gerber, 2002). In addition, two BIE grantees included in the Gerber survey indicated that their outreach activities included development of trade directories. These two grantees indicated that they had distributed over 30,000 copies of the trade directories. The survey indicated that, in addition to supporting outreach to busi- ness, BIE grants support outreach to business education programs: 68 percent of respondents reported activities aimed at helping other institu- tions internationalize their business curricula. The most frequent way re- spondents did so was by organizing seminars, workshops, or conferences attended by faculty and administrators from other colleges and universities. They also indicated that they conducted faculty development programs and shared instructional materials with other institutions. These types of activities may be facilitated by the definition of an eli- gible BIE applicant. BIE applicants are restricted to higher education insti- tutions that have developed a formal agreement with a business enterprise, trade association, or association engaged in international business activities. These agreements allow two-way communication between business educa- tion programs and the business community, guiding grantees toward re- search, publications, and events tailored to meet specific business needs.
194 INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION AND FOREIGN LANGUAGES Institutional Capacity The Gerber study suggests that BIE grants were effective in catalyzing ongoing, sustained activity related to internationalization of business educa- tion. For example, in the area of faculty development, nearly 50 percent of respondents indicated that their institution continued to support faculty in attending CIBER-sponsored international business programs following the end of the grant period, and over 30 percent reported that their institution continued to fund individual faculty research on international topics after the end of the grant period. In the area of curriculum development, over 85 percent indicated that their institution continued to offer newly developed international business courses after the end of the grant period. In terms of collaboration with business, over 80 percent reported that their institution continued to work with at least one of their BIE partners after the end of the grant period, and they also reported increased activity with one or more of these partners after the conclusion of the grant. Finally, over 80 percent of BIE grantees that were involved in outreach to other business education programs indicated that they were continuing such activities after the end of the grant period. However, the extent to which these activities were truly institutional- ized, with ongoing financial commitment from the college or university, was not clear. Nearly 80 percent of survey respondents reported applying for subsequent grants, and, among these, 79 percent reported success. Some reported receiving multiple awards, most often in the form of BIE grants. Others reported receiving CIBER or Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language grants. Thus, the sustained activity may have been supported by additional outside money, rather than by the host institution itself. In addition, the respondents (the survey had a 58-percent response rate) may have given a more positive outlook than nonrespondents. Implementation Challenges The survey illuminated challenges as well as successes. Survey respon- dents identified two general types of problems. First, they reported problems in bringing together business representatives and faculty and administrators from a variety of disciplines. These ranged from simple scheduling problems to the greater challenge of bridging the cultural divide between business and academic disciplines. The second type of problem appeared to result from insufficient advance planning to ensure that activities were carefully designed to address specific needs or interests in the business or academic community. As a result of poor planning, some activities were poorly at- tended, some were canceled, and some required extra marketing to succeed (Gerber, 2002).
ADDRESSING BUSINESS NEEDS 195 CONCLUSIONS In comparison to other Title VI/FH programs, more information is available about the BIE and CIBER programs. The CIBER network, facili- tated by ED, has played a key role in generating information about outputs and accomplishments. Two studies have suggested that the programs have contributed to the infusion of foreign language or international business content into the curriculum. BIE and CIBER grants have generated a great deal of activity aimed at Title VI goals. The grants have been used to create new courses on international business and to infuse existing courses with international content. They have been used to support faculty in conduct- ing international business research, developing international courses, and leading students in studies and internships abroad. Grantees have forged collaborations with businesses, government organizations, and trade as- sociations, helping to ensure that international business research, publica- tions, and conferences are aligned with business needs. C onclusion:â The legal requirement for business involvement on CIBER advisory boards provides an appropriate mechanism for business input into the program to enable it to address business needs. The CIBER and BIE programs appear to act as resources for the larger business educa- tion community, assisting business schools and undergraduate business programs that are interested in developing capacity to support teaching and research on international business issues. ED has supported the CIBER grantees in creating and sustaining a strong, collaborative network facilitated by the shared CIBERweb portal. C onclusion:â The CIBERs have created a network for sharing informa- tion and learning from each othersâ experiences that is a model for the other Title VI programs. The CIBERs, located primarily at large, nationally ranked business schools, share expertise and resources with BIE grantees and with other, smaller, business schools. The BIE grantees, located in a wide range of four- year and two-year institutions, learn from the CIBERs, at the same time sharing their developing expertise in international business education with other institutions.