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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2011. The Causes and Impacts of Neglected Tropical and Zoonotic Diseases: Opportunities for Integrated Intervention Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13087.
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THE CAUSES AND IMPACTS OF NEGLECTED TROPICAL AND ZOONOTIC DISEASES

Opportunities for Integrated Intervention Strategies

Eileen R. Choffnes and David A. Relman, Rapporteurs

Forum on Microbial Threats

Board on Global Health

INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2011. The Causes and Impacts of Neglected Tropical and Zoonotic Diseases: Opportunities for Integrated Intervention Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13087.
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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.

This project was supported by contracts between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Food and Drug Administration, and the Fogarty International Center; U.S. Department of Defense, Department of the Army: Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System, Medical Research and Materiel Command, and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency; U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs; U.S. Department of Homeland Security; U.S. Agency for International Development; American Society for Microbiology; Sanofi Pasteur; Burroughs Wellcome Fund; Pfizer, Inc.; GlaxoSmithKline; Infectious Diseases Society of America; and the Merck Company Foundation. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project.

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Cover image: The life cycles of hookworms and schistosomes. Reprinted with the permission of Nature Reviews: Microbiology.

Suggested citation: IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2011. The Causes and Impacts of Neglected Tropical and Zoonotic Diseases: Opportunities for Integrated Intervention Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2011. The Causes and Impacts of Neglected Tropical and Zoonotic Diseases: Opportunities for Integrated Intervention Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13087.
×

“Knowing is not enough; we must apply.

Willing is not enough; we must do.”

—Goethe

INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES


Advising the Nation. Improving Health.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2011. The Causes and Impacts of Neglected Tropical and Zoonotic Diseases: Opportunities for Integrated Intervention Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13087.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine


The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.


The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering.


The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.


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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2011. The Causes and Impacts of Neglected Tropical and Zoonotic Diseases: Opportunities for Integrated Intervention Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13087.
×

FORUM ON MICROBIAL THREATS1

DAVID A. RELMAN (Chair),

Stanford University and Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, California

JAMES M. HUGHES (Vice-Chair),

Global Infectious Diseases Program, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia

LONNIE J. KING (Vice-Chair),

Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio

KEVIN ANDERSON,

Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC

RUTH L. BERKELMAN,

Emory University, Center for Public Health Preparedness and Research, Rollins School of Public Health, Atlanta, Georgia

ENRIQUETA C. BOND, Consultant,

Marshall, Virginia

ROGER G. BREEZE,

Centaur Science Group, Washington, DC

STEVEN J. BRICKNER,2

SJ Brickner Consulting, LLC, Ledyard, Connecticut

PAULA R. BRYANT,

Medical S&T Division, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Fort Belvoir, Virginia

JOHN E. BURRIS,

Burroughs Wellcome Fund, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina

PETER DASZAK,

EcoHealth Alliance, New York, New York

JEFFREY DUCHIN,

Public Health–Seattle and King County, Seattle, Washington

JONATHAN EISEN,

Genome Center, University of California, Davis, California

MARK B. FEINBERG,

Merck Vaccine Division, Merck & Co., West Point, Pennsylvania

JACQUELINE FLETCHER,

Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma

S. ELIZABETH GEORGE,2

Biological and Chemical Countermeasures Program, Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC

JESSE L. GOODMAN, Chief Scientist and Deputy Commissioner,

Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, Maryland

EDUARDO GOTUZZO,

Instituto de Medicina Tropical–Alexander von Humbolt, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru

CAROLE A. HEILMAN,

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland

DAVID L. HEYMANN,

Health Protection Agency, London, United Kingdom

PHILIP HOSBACH,

Sanofi Pasteur, Swiftwater, Pennsylvania

STEPHEN A. JOHNSTON,

Arizona BioDesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona

1

Institute of Medicine forums and roundtables do not issue, review, or approve individual documents. The responsibility for the published workshop summary rests with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution.

2

Forum member until December 31, 2010.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2011. The Causes and Impacts of Neglected Tropical and Zoonotic Diseases: Opportunities for Integrated Intervention Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13087.
×

KENT KESTER,

Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland

GERALD T. KEUSCH,

Boston University School of Medicine and Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts

RIMA F. KHABBAZ,

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia

STANLEY M. LEMON,

School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina

EDWARD McSWEEGAN,

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland

MARK A. MILLER,

Fogarty International Center, Bethesda, Maryland

PAUL F. MILLER,

Pfizer, Inc., Groton, Connecticut

STEPHEN S. MORSE,2

Center for Public Health Preparedness, Columbia University, New York, New York

GEORGE POSTE,

Complex Adaptive Systems Initiative, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona

JOHN C. POTTAGE, JR.,

ViiV Healthcare, Collegeville, Pennsylvania

GARY A. ROSELLE,

Veterans Health Administration, Department of Veterans Affairs, Washington, DC

ALAN S. RUDOLPH,

Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Fort Belvoir, Virginia

KEVIN RUSSELL,

Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System, Department of Defense, Silver Spring, Maryland

JANET SHOEMAKER,

American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC

P. FREDERICK SPARLING,

University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina

TERENCE TAYLOR,

International Council for the Life Sciences, Arlington, Virginia

MURRAY TROSTLE,

U.S. Agency for International Development, Washington, DC

MARY E. WILSON,

Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts

Staff

EILEEN CHOFFNES, Director

LEIGHANNE OLSEN, Program Officer

KATHERINE McCLURE, Senior Program Associate

COLLIN WEINBERGER, Research Associate3

ROBERT GASIOR, Senior Program Assistant4

3

Forum staff member until May 2011.

4

Forum staff member until February 2011.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2011. The Causes and Impacts of Neglected Tropical and Zoonotic Diseases: Opportunities for Integrated Intervention Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13087.
×

BOARD ON GLOBAL HEALTH1

Richard Guerrant (Chair), Thomas H. Hunter Professor of International Medicine and Director,

Center for Global Health, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville

Jo Ivey Boufford (IOM Foreign Secretary), President,

New York Academy of Medicine, New York

Claire V. Broome, Adjunct Professor,

Division of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia

Jacquelyn C. Campbell, Anna D. Wolf Chair and Professor,

Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing, Baltimore, Maryland

Thomas J. Coates, Professor,

David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California

Gary Darmstadt,2 Director,

Family Health Division, Global Health Program, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, Washington

Valentin Fuster, Director,

Wiener Cardiovascular Institute and Kravis Cardiovascular Health Center, and

Professor,

Cardiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York

James Hospedales,3 Coordinator,

Chronic Disease Project, Health Surveillance and Disease Management Area, Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization, Washington, DC

Peter J. Hotez, Professor and Chair,

Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine, George Washington University, Washington, DC

Clarion Johnson,3 Global Medical Director,

Medicine and Occupational Medicine Department, Exxon Mobil, Fairfax, Virginia

Fitzhugh Mullan, Professor,

Department of Health Policy, George Washington University, Washington, DC

Guy H. Palmer,3 Regents Professor of Pathology and Infectious Diseases and Director of the School for Global Animal Health,

Washington State University, Pullman

Jennifer Prah Ruger,3 Associate Professor,

Division of Health Policy and Administration, Yale University School of Public Health and Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut

Staff

Patrick Kelley, Director

Angela Mensah, Program Associate

1

Institute of Medicine boards do not review or approve individual workshop summaries and are not asked to endorse conclusions and recommendations. The responsibility for the content of the workshop summary rests with the authors and the institution.

2

Board member since December 2010.

3

Board member since September 2010.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2011. The Causes and Impacts of Neglected Tropical and Zoonotic Diseases: Opportunities for Integrated Intervention Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13087.
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Reviewers

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

Enriqueta Bond, Consultant

Richard L. Guerrant, Division of Infectious Diseases and International Health, School of Medicine, University of Virginia

Carole A. Heilman, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health

David Heymann, Health Protection Agency

Regina Rabinovich, Infectious Disease and Global Health Program, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Dr. Melvin Worth. Appointed by the Institute of Medicine, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2011. The Causes and Impacts of Neglected Tropical and Zoonotic Diseases: Opportunities for Integrated Intervention Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13087.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2011. The Causes and Impacts of Neglected Tropical and Zoonotic Diseases: Opportunities for Integrated Intervention Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13087.
×

Acknowledgments

The Forum on Emerging Infections was created by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) in 1996 in response to a request from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The purpose of the Forum is to provide structured opportunities for leaders from government, academia, and industry to regularly meet and examine issues of shared concern regarding research, prevention, detection, and management of emerging, reemerging, and novel infectious diseases in humans, plants, and animals. In pursuing this task, the Forum provides a venue to foster the exchange of information and ideas, identify areas in need of greater attention, clarify policy issues by enhancing knowledge and identifying points of agreement, and inform decision makers about science and policy issues. The Forum seeks to illuminate issues rather than resolve them. For this reason, it does not provide advice or recommendations on any specific policy initiative pending before any agency or organization. Its value derives instead from the diversity of its membership and from the contributions that individual members make throughout the activities of the Forum. In September 2003, the Forum changed its name to the Forum on Microbial Threats.

The Forum on Microbial Threats and the IOM wish to express their warmest appreciation to the individuals and organizations who gave their valuable time to provide information and advice to the Forum through their participation in the planning and execution of this workshop. A full list of presenters, and their biographical information, may be found in Appendixes B and F, respectively. We would also like to express our deepest appreciation and gratitude to those that helped to identify or provided images illustrating the diseases of interest found in Text Box WO-6, including Doris Bravo (National Veterinary Services

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2011. The Causes and Impacts of Neglected Tropical and Zoonotic Diseases: Opportunities for Integrated Intervention Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13087.
×

Laboratories, USDA); R. Anson Eaglin (USDA–APHIS); Jean Jannin (WHO); Kent Kester (Walter Reed Army Institute of Research); Lonnie King (Ohio State University); Richard Kuhn (Purdue University); Ivan Kuzmin (CDC); Stanley Lemon (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill); Thomas Letonja (USDA–APHIS); Frederick A. Murphy (University of Texas Medical Branch); Alecia L. Naugle (National Center for Animal Health Programs, USDA–APHIS); Francesco A. Rio and the team of individuals at the NTD directorate of WHO; Suelee Robbe-Austerman (National Veterinary Services Laboratories, USDA); Michael Rossmann (Purdue University); Charles Rupprecht (CDC); Kevin Russell (DoD-GEIS); Lorenzo Savioli (WHO); and Bruce V. Thomsen (National Veterinary Services Laboratories, USDA).

The Forum is indebted to the IOM staff who tirelessly contributed throughout the planning and execution of the workshop and the production of this workshop summary report. On behalf of the Forum, we gratefully acknowledge these efforts led by Dr. Eileen Choffnes, director of the Forum; Dr. LeighAnne Olsen, program officer; Katherine McClure, senior program associate; Collin Weinberger, research associate; and Robert Gasior, senior program assistant, for dedicating much effort and time to developing this workshop’s agenda and for their thoughtful and insightful approach and skill in planning for the workshop and in translating the workshop’s proceedings and discussion into this workshop summary report. We would also like to thank the following IOM staff and consultants for their valuable contributions to this activity: Greta Gorman, Jill Grady, Alison Mack, Heather Phillips, and Jordan Wyndelts.

Finally, the Forum wishes to recognize the sponsors that supported this activity. Financial support for this project was provided by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: NIH, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, CDC, Food and Drug Administration, and the Fogarty International Center1; U.S. Department of Defense, Department of the Army: Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System, Medical Research and Materiel Command, and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency; U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs; U.S. Department of Homeland Security; U.S. Agency for International Development; American Society for Microbiology; Sanofi Pasteur; Burroughs Wellcome Fund; Pfizer, Inc.; GlaxoSmithKline; Infectious Diseases Society of America; and the Merck Company Foundation. The views presented in this workshop summary report are those of the workshop participants and rapporteurs and are not necessarily those of the Forum on Microbial Threats or its sponsors.

1

Sponsor as of October 1, 2010.

Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2011. The Causes and Impacts of Neglected Tropical and Zoonotic Diseases: Opportunities for Integrated Intervention Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13087.
×

Contents

 

 

Workshop Overview

 

1

   

 Workshop Overview References,

 

108

 

 

Appendixes

 

 

A

 

Contributed Manuscripts,

 

115

   

 A1  Regional Approaches to Neglected Tropical Diseases Control in Latin America and the Caribbean,
Steven Kenyon Ault and Mirta Roses Periago

 

115

   

 A2  Neglected Tropical Diseases, Conflict, and the Right to Health,
Chris Beyrer, Sonal Singh, and Darshan Sudarshi

 

132

   

 A3  Parasite Prevalence and the Worldwide Distribution of Cognitive Ability,
Christopher Eppig, Corey L. Fincher, and Randy Thornhill

 

155

   

 A4  The Neglected Tropical Diseases: Current Status of Control and the U.K. Contribution,
Alan Fenwick

 

172

   

 A5  Integrated Implementation of Programs Targeting Neglected Tropical Diseases Through Preventive Chemotherapy: Proving the Feasibility at National-Scale,
Mary Linehan, Christy Hanson, Angela Weaver, Margaret Baker, Achille Kabor, Kathryn L. Zoerhoff, Dieudonne Sankara, Scott Torres, and Eric A. Ottesen

 

183

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2011. The Causes and Impacts of Neglected Tropical and Zoonotic Diseases: Opportunities for Integrated Intervention Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13087.
×
   

 A6  Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) Slated for Elimination and Eradication,
Donald R. Hopkins

 

208

   

 A7  The Neglected Tropical Diseases and the Neglected Infections of Poverty: Overview of Their Common Features, Global Disease Burden and Distribution, New Control Tools, and Prospects for Disease Elimination,
Peter J. Hotez

 

221

   

 A8  Neglected Infections of Poverty in the United States of America,
Peter J. Hotez

 

237

   

 A9  Developing Vaccines to Combat Hookworm Infection and Intestinal Schistosomiasis,
Peter J. Hotez, Jeffrey M. Bethony, David J. Diemert, Mark Pearson, and Alex Loukas

 

264

   

 A10  The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Approach and Strategy to the Neglected Tropical Diseases 1998–2010,
Julie Jacobson and Regina Rabinovich

 

293

   

 A11  Progress in Control and Elimination of Human African Trypanosomiasis, 2010,
Jean Jannin, Pere P. Simarro, and José R. Franco

 

310

   

 A12  Schistosomiasis: Challenges and Opportunities,
Charles H. King

 

323

   

 A13  Neglected Zoonotic Diseases,
Lonnie King

 

342

   

 A14  Diagnostic Needs for NTD Programs,
Patrick J. Lammie, Anthony Solomon, Evan Secor, and Rosanna Peeling

 

346

   

 A15  Neglected Tropical and Zoonotic Diseases and Their Impact on Women’s and Children’s Health,
Marian C. McDonald

 

357

   

 A16  Global Funding of New Products for Neglected Tropical Diseases,
Mary Moran

 

388

   

 A17  The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis: Health Impact After 8 Years,
Eric A. Ottesen, Pamela J. Hooper, Mark Bradley, and Gautam Biswas

 

414

   

 A18  The Economic Benefits Resulting From the First 8 Years of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (2000–2007),
Brian K. Chu, Pamela J. Hooper, Mark H. Bradley, Deborah A. McFarland, and Eric A. Ottesen

 

440

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2011. The Causes and Impacts of Neglected Tropical and Zoonotic Diseases: Opportunities for Integrated Intervention Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13087.
×
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2011. The Causes and Impacts of Neglected Tropical and Zoonotic Diseases: Opportunities for Integrated Intervention Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13087.
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×

Tables, Figures, and Boxes

TABLES

WO-1

 

High-Prevalence and Other Vector-Borne Neglected Tropical Diseases,

 

8

WO-2

 

Environmental Classification of Water- and Excreta-related Infections,

 

10

WO-3

 

Four NTDs Slated for Eradication or “Elimination,”

 

28

WO-4

 

Laboratory-Confirmed Dengue Fever in Study Sites Compared to Reported National Incidence,

 

42

A1-1

 

Evolution of Change in Epidemiological Parameters of Chagas Disease in LAC,

 

118

A1-2

 

Diseases, Foci, Population at Risk, and Treatment Coverage in Group 1 Countries,

 

124

A1-3

 

Diseases, Foci, Population at Risk, and Treatment Coverage in Group 2 Countries,

 

125

A1-4

 

Pre-SAC and SAC Population at Risk for Soil-Transmitted Helminths (STHs) in LAC, 2009,

 

126

A2-1

 

Studies in Conflict and Neglected Tropical Diseases Since 2007,

 

136

A2-2

 

Summary of Six Space-Time Clusters of Sleeping Sickness Incidence, Africa 1976–2004,

 

143

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2011. The Causes and Impacts of Neglected Tropical and Zoonotic Diseases: Opportunities for Integrated Intervention Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13087.
×

A3-1

 

Zero-order correlations among average national IQ (LVE), log DALY owing to infectious disease, average winter high temperature, distance from EEA, literacy, average years of education (AVED), % enrolling in secondary education, % completing all secondary education, and GDP,

 

162

A3-2

 

Zero-order correlations between average national intelligence and log DALY owing to infectious disease within each of Murdock’s (1949) six world regions,

 

162

A3-3

 

Multiple regression analyses predicting average national intelligence using LVE and WEAM (in parentheses where different) by log DALY owing to infectious disease, log distance from EEA, average winter high temperature, average years of education (AVED), and log GDP,

 

163

A3-S-1

 

Zero-order correlations among average National IQ (LVCD), log DALY infectious disease, average winter high temperature, distance from EEA, literacy, average years of education (AVED), % enrolling in secondary education, % completing all secondary education, and GDP,

 

170

A3-S-2

 

Zero-order correlations among average National (WEAM), log DALY infectious disease, average winter high temperature, distance from EEA, literacy, average years of education (AVED), % enrolling in secondary education, % completing all secondary education, and GDP,

 

171

A3-S-3

 

Multiple regression analyses predicting average national intelligence using LVE and WEAM (in parentheses when different) by log DALY infectious disease, log distance from EEA, average winter high temperature, and average years of education (AVED),

 

172

A5-1

 

Disease-Specific Guidelines,

 

187

A5-2

 

Principal Drug Distribution Strategy in Endemic Districts,

 

190

A5-3

 

WHO Guidelines for Disease-Specific Mapping,

 

193

A5-4

 

Mapping of Districts in NTD Control Program Countries,

 

194

A5-5

 

NTD Control Program-Supported Treatments,

 

197

A5-6

 

Number of Tablets of Donated Drugs Provided to National NTD Programs in Year 3 of the NTD Control Program,

 

198

A5-7

 

Programmatic Coverage in NTD Control Program Countries,

 

199

A6-1

 

Current Situation of Ocular Morbidity and Transmission of Onchocerciasis Within the Americas Region, 2010,

 

213

A6-2

 

Four NTDs Slated for Eradication or “Elimination,”

 

219

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2011. The Causes and Impacts of Neglected Tropical and Zoonotic Diseases: Opportunities for Integrated Intervention Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13087.
×

A7-1

 

The Neglected Tropical Diseases,

 

223

A7-2

 

On the Outside Looking In: NTDs of Global Importance Not Typically Found on Lists of Diseases,

 

225

A7-3

 

Neglected Infections Amid Wealth: Major Neglected Infections of Poverty in the United States and Europe,

 

226

A7-4

 

The Seven Major NTDs Targeted for Integrated Control and Elimination with “Rapid Impact Packages,”

 

230

A8-1

 

Selected U.S. Census Bureau 2006 Poverty Data,

 

239

A8-2

 

Estimated Prevalence of Neglected Infections of Poverty in the US,

 

242

A8-3

 

Priority Needs for Enhanced Surveillance, Treatment, and Prevention Efforts for the High Priority Neglected Infections of Poverty,

 

256

A9-1

 

Impact of hookworm, schistosomiasis, HIV/AIDS, and malaria,

 

266

A9-2

 

Successful vaccines against helminth infections,

 

275

A9-3

 

Ranking of Lead Candidate Necator americanus Vaccine Antigens,

 

277

A9-4

 

Ranking of Lead Candidate Schistosoma mansoni Vaccine Antigens,

 

282

A10-1

 

Summary of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Strategy Refresh Process,

 

298

A10-2

 

Summary of Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Investments in NOIDs Through 2010,

 

304

A14-1

 

Tests Commonly Used by NTD Programs,

 

349

A15-1

 

MDA and Pregnancy,

 

372

A15-2

 

Selected NTDs and Children’s Health and Development,

 

373

A16-1

 

Neglected Disease R&D Funding 2008,

 

391

A16-2

 

NTD R&D Funding 2008,

 

392

A16-3

 

Top 12 Funders of R&D for NTDs, 2008,

 

392

A17-1

 

Population at Risk,

 

417

A17-2

 

Projected Health Impact-LF Related,

 

418

A17-3

 

Projected Health Impact-Beyond LF,

 

419

A18-1

 

Sub Populations of the “Benefit Cohort Population,”

 

444

A18-2

 

Benefit Cohort Population: Individuals and Person Years,

 

450

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2011. The Causes and Impacts of Neglected Tropical and Zoonotic Diseases: Opportunities for Integrated Intervention Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13087.
×

A18-3

 

Epidemiological and Cost Estimates Used in the Economic Benefit Model,

 

452

A18-4

 

GPELF MDA Treatments (2000–2007),

 

458

A18-5

 

Total Costs Prevented Over Lifetime of Benefit Cohort Population,

 

460

A18-6

 

Total Costs Prevented per Individual in the Benefit Cohort Population,

 

461

A18-7

 

Lifetime Economic Benefits per Region,

 

463

A18-8

 

Health System Economic Benefits,

 

463

A18-9

 

Sensitivity Analysis for Chronic Disease Reversal Following MDA,

 

465

A18-10

 

Country-Specific Benefit-Cost Ratios,

 

468

A19-1

 

Main Steps for the Development of Scientific Knowledge for NTD Control,

 

483

A19-2

 

Steps for the Promotion of Implementation of NTD Control,

 

484

A19-3

 

Steps for the Building of Consensus Among Partners and Donors,

 

485

A20-1

 

Trends in Journal Articles Incorporating Terms Related to “Neglected Disease,” 1998–2009,

 

492

A20-2

 

Trends in Journal Articles Incorporating Terms Related to “Determinants of Health,” 1998–2009,

 

494

A20-3

 

Journal Articles Using Terms from Both Paradigms, 1998–2009,

 

495

A20-4

 

Inclusion of Drug or Vaccine Mention in Literature on Neglected Diseases, 1998–2009,

 

496

A20-5

 

Inclusion of Terms in Journal Articles on Trachoma, 1998–2009,

 

497

FIGURES

WO-1

 

Geographical overlap and distribution of the seven most common neglected tropical diseases,

 

5

WO-2

 

Depiction of the classical model of the Triangular trade,

 

7

WO-3

 

The convergence model,

 

12

WO-4

 

WHO list of neglected tropical diseases,

 

18

WO-5

 

Life cycle for dracunculiasis,

 

20

WO-6

 

Geographic distribution and transmission status of the 13 onchocerciasis foci of the Americas (2010),

 

23

WO-7

 

Onchocerciasis control programs in Africa,

 

24

WO-8

 

Life cycle of schistosomiasis,

 

32

WO-9

 

Dengue virus infection,

 

41

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2011. The Causes and Impacts of Neglected Tropical and Zoonotic Diseases: Opportunities for Integrated Intervention Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13087.
×

WO-10

 

Distribution of NTDs in Africa and countries with integrated NTD control programs in sub-Saharan Africa,

 

51

WO-11

 

Endemic zoonotic diseases by district in Mali,

 

55

WO-12

 

Classification of NIDs and other poverty-related infections,

 

57

WO-13

 

Group I: elimination targets,

 

58

WO-14

 

Diseases targeted for drastic disease burden reductions,

 

59

WO-15

 

Global funding for NTDs by disease,

 

78

WO-16

 

Top 12 funders of NTD research, 2008 (US$),

 

79

WO-17

 

Opportunities for “vaccine diplomacy,”

 

85

WO-6-1

 

Anthrax,

 

86

WO-6-2

 

Ascariasis,

 

87

WO-6-3

 

Bovine tuberculosis,

 

88

WO-6-4

 

Brucellosis,

 

89

WO-6-5

 

Buruli ulcer (Mycobacterium ulcerans),

 

90

WO-6-6

 

Chagas disease,

 

91

WO-6-7

 

Hydatid disease,

 

92

WO-6-8

 

Cysticercosis,

 

93

WO-6-9

 

Dengue,

 

94

WO-6-10

 

Guinea worm (Dracunculus medinensis),

 

95

WO-6-11

 

Hookworm (Nematode Ancylostoma caninum),

 

96

WO-6-12

 

Leishmaniasis (Leishmania),

 

97

WO-6-13

 

Leprosy (Mycobacterium leprae),

 

98

WO-6-14

 

Lymphatic filariasis,

 

99

WO-6-15

 

Onchocerciasis,

 

10

WO-6-16

 

Rabies,

 

101

WO-6-17

 

Schistosomiasis,

 

102

WO-6-18

 

Parasitic roundworm associated with Toxocariasis (larvae),

 

103

WO-6-19

 

Trachoma,

 

104

WO-6-20

 

Trichuriasis (Whipworm),

 

105

WO-6-21

 

Human African Trypanosomiasis (Trypanosoma brucei),

 

106

WO-6-22

 

Yaws infection (Treponema pertenue),

 

107

A1-1

 

Overlapping of six neglected infectious diseases,

 

127

A1-2

 

Elimination and control of NIDs in LAC: Putting the pieces together,

 

129

A2-1

 

Search protocol and results,

 

134

A2-2

 

Conceptual framework for effect of conflict on NTDs,

 

142

A2-3

 

Map of the distribution of sleeping sickness incidence, Africa 1976–2004,

 

143

A2-4

 

Malaria in Timor Leste, 2004–2007,

 

149

Page xxii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2011. The Causes and Impacts of Neglected Tropical and Zoonotic Diseases: Opportunities for Integrated Intervention Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13087.
×

A3-1

 

Log DALY owing to infectious disease and average national IQ correlate (a) at r = −0.82 (LVE) and (b) at r = −0.76 (WEAM; n = 184, p < 0.0001),

 

161

A5-1

 

A. Persons reached (dark bars) and treatments provided (light bars) during each of the first three years of the Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD) Control Program. B. Cumulative totals of persons reached (dark line) and treatments provided (light line) over the first three years of the NTD Control Program,

 

196

A5-2

 

Number of districts covered by mass drug administration (MDA) treatment during the first three years of the Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD) Control Program in the seven implementing countries (an aggregated total of 526 districts in these countries),

 

200

A5-3

 

Number of workers in training programs supported by the Neglected Tropical Disease Control Program,

 

201

A5-4

 

Distribution of expenditures by the Neglected Tropical Disease Control Program during its first three years,

 

202

A6-1

 

Number of reported cases of dracunculiasis by year: 1989–2009,

 

211

A6-2

 

Geographic distribution of malaria and lymphatic filariasis on the island of Hispaniola in 2006,

 

216

A6-3

 

Prevalence of Trachomatus inflammation-follicular (TF) in children 1–9 years of age in Ghana and Ethiopia, 2007–2008,

 

218

A8-1

 

Location of counties that represent spatial clusters in which poverty rates are at least two standard deviations higher than the national mean,

 

240

A9-1

 

Global distributions and life cycles of hookworms and schistosomes,

 

268

A9-2

 

Necator americanus degradation of host blood components and potential vaccine targets,

 

276

A9-3

 

Schistosoma mansoni tegument,

 

283

A10-1

 

BMGF NOIDs investment by disease through 2010 with payments through 2014,

 

295

A10-2

 

BMGF NOIDs commitments by tool and strategic approach through 2010,

 

296

A10-3

 

Overview of drug donation for the NTDs,

 

299

A10-4

 

Research and development investments for NOIDs globally, 2009,

 

301

Page xxiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2011. The Causes and Impacts of Neglected Tropical and Zoonotic Diseases: Opportunities for Integrated Intervention Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13087.
×

A11-1

 

Drug rate use for the treatment of second-stage T.b. gambiense: eflornithine versus melarsoprol (2003–2009),

 

314

A11-2

 

Institutional rate use of eflornithine: National Sleeping Sickness Control Programs versus nongovernmental organizations (2003–2009),

 

314

A11-3

 

Classification of human African trypanosomiasis-endemic countries according to cases reported in 2009,

 

317

A11-4

 

Evolution of reported cases of both forms of human African trypanosomiasis (1998–2009),

 

318

A11-5

 

Atlas of human African trypanosomiasis,

 

319

A12-1

 

Life cycle of Schistosoma spp. parasites,

 

324

A12-2

 

Disability-related health outcomes included in meta-analysis of schistosomiasis-related health impact,

 

330

A12-3

 

Reduced protective antibody response to anti-Haemophilus influenza b vaccination among children of mothers with schistosomiasis and/or filariasis during pregnancy,

 

332

A12-4

 

New estimates of schistosomiasis cases in 1995 and in 2005 according to the Global Burden of Disease Program’s world regions,

 

334

A12-5

 

Projected impact of different antischistosomal treatment strategies for S. haematobium, in which dipstick screening for hematuria may be used (as a proxy) to detect active infection,

 

337

A12-6

 

How long to treat: Without some modification of the local ecological factors that favor Schistosoma transmission (sewage contamination, snail habitat, and local surface water use) there is a tendency for local levels of schistosomiasis to recur within 10 to 15 years of stopping a drug treatment campaign,

 

338

A14-1

 

A generalized NTD program life cycle is presented schematically in this figure,

 

349

A14-2

 

Age-specific prevalence of Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaremia, antigenemia, and antifilarial antibody reactivity,

 

351

A15-1

 

Young woman with infant daughter in Papau Province, Indonesia, seeks medical care,

 

357

A15-2

 

The Eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs),

 

358

A15-3

 

The convergence model,

 

360

A15-4

 

Global distribution of NTDs,

 

365

A15-5

 

Child swarmed with flies, which cause infection leading to trachoma,

 

367

A15-6

 

Women walking in river, South Asia,

 

368

Page xxiv Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2011. The Causes and Impacts of Neglected Tropical and Zoonotic Diseases: Opportunities for Integrated Intervention Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13087.
×

A15-7

 

To address NTDs, the cycle of poverty must be broken,

 

377

A15-8

 

Women are key to NTD prevention efforts,

 

378

A16-1

 

Top country funders of NTD R&D, 2008,

 

393

A16-2

 

Share of NTD funding by disease, 2008,

 

394

A16-3

 

Top 12 funders of kinetoplastid R&D, 2008,

 

395

A16-4

 

Kinetoplastid investment by research area for each disease, 2008,

 

398

A16-5

 

Top 12 funders of dengue R&D, 2008,

 

400

A16-6

 

Dengue funding by product area, 2008,

 

402

A16-7

 

Top 12 funders of helminth R&D, 2008,

 

403

A16-8

 

Helminth funding by product area, 2008,

 

405

A16-9

 

Top 12 funders of leprosy R&D, 2008,

 

407

A16-10

 

Leprosy funding by product area, 2008,

 

409

A16-11

 

Top 12 funders of trachoma R&D, 2008,

 

410

A16-12

 

Trachoma funding by product area, 2008,

 

411

A16-13

 

Buruli ulcer funding by product area, 2008,

 

411

A16-14

 

Top 12 funders of Buruli ulcer R&D, 2008,

 

412

A16-15

 

Assessing health return on investment,

 

413

A17-1

 

Cumulative treatments in GPELF,

 

424

A17-2

 

Cumulative totals of donated drugs (Panel A), albendazole and invermectin (Mectizan), and purchased drug (Panel B) DEC, used in GPELF between 2000 and 2007,

 

425

A17-3

 

Effect of MDA on microfilaremia prevalence,

 

426

A17-4

 

Clearance of microfilaremia from each sentinel site (approximately 500 persons per site) reporting to the Global Programme after 5 rounds of MDA treatment (n = 68),

 

427

A18-1

 

General formula for calculating economic benefits,

 

448

A18-2

 

Duration of economic benefits,

 

449

A18-3

 

Total economic benefits by category,

 

461

A18-4

 

Cumulative economic benefits resulting from the first 8 years of the GPELF,

 

464

A18-5

 

Potential economic impact of the GPELF,

 

476

A20-1

 

Concurrent growth in “neglected disease” and “determinants of health” discourse 1998–2009,

 

495

A20-2

 

Overview of points of intervention to address disease and improve health security,

 

498

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2011. The Causes and Impacts of Neglected Tropical and Zoonotic Diseases: Opportunities for Integrated Intervention Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13087.
×

A21-1

 

Amastigotes of T. cruzi within host cells,

 

513

A21-2

 

A setting of active transmission in the Gran Chaco region and the pyrethroid-resistant Triatoma infestans collected from the structure,

 

516

BOXES

WO-1

 

Ancient Scourges, New Names,

 

6

WO-2

 

Definitions of Elimination, Eradication, and Control,

 

19

WO-3

 

NTDs Targeted by WHO for Elimination or Eradication,

 

20

WO-4

 

Cumulative Burdens of the NZDs,

 

50

WO-5

 

Common Features of Integrated Control Programs for Overlapping NTDs and NZDs, Malaria, and Other Infectious Diseases of Poverty,

 

52

WO-6

 

Key Neglected Diseases of Poverty,

 

86

A2-1

 

The Impact of Conflict on Neglected Diseases,

 

141

A9-1

 

Immune Evasion and Regulation of Helminth Infections,

 

267

A14-1

 

World Health Assembly Resolutions Targeting NTDs,

 

347

A17-1

 

The Global Programme to Eliminate LF—Its First 8 Years,

 

430

A19-1

 

NTDs and Their Common Features,

 

482

Page xxvi Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2011. The Causes and Impacts of Neglected Tropical and Zoonotic Diseases: Opportunities for Integrated Intervention Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13087.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2011. The Causes and Impacts of Neglected Tropical and Zoonotic Diseases: Opportunities for Integrated Intervention Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13087.
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