National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13117.
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VISION

and

VOYAGES

for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022

Committee on the Planetary Science Decadal Survey

Space Studies Board

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.

www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13117.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13117.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Enginnering and Medicine

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

www.nationalacademies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13117.
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OTHER RECENT REPORTS OF THE SPACE STUDIES BOARD

Assessment of Impediments to Interagency Collaboration on Space and Earth Science Missions (Space Studies Board [SSB], 2011)

Panel Reports—New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics (Board on Physics and Astronomy [BPA] and SSB, 2011)

Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era (SSB, 2011)

Report of the Panel on Implementing Recommendations from the New Worlds, New Horizons Decadal Survey (BPA and SSB, 2011)

Capabilities for the Future: An Assessment of NASA Laboratories for Basic Research (Laboratory Assessments Board [LAB] with SSB and the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board [ASEB], 2010)

Controlling Cost Growth of NASA Earth and Space Science Missions (SSB, 2010)

Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth-Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies: Final Report (SSB with ASEB, 2010)

An Enabling Foundation for NASA’s Space and Earth Science Missions (SSB, 2010)

Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era of Space Exploration: An Interim Report (SSB with ASEB, 2010)

New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics (BPA and SSB, 2010)

Revitalizing NASA’s Suborbital Program: Advancing Science, Driving Innovation, and Developing a Workforce (SSB, 2010)

America’s Future in Space: Aligning the Civil Space Program with National Needs (SSB with ASEB, 2009)

Approaches to Future Space Cooperation and Competition in a Globalizing World: Summary of a Workshop (SSB with ASEB, 2009)

Assessment of Planetary Protection Requirements for Mars Sample Return Missions (SSB, 2009)

Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies: Interim Report (SSB with ASEB, 2009)

A Performance Assessment of NASA’s Heliophysics Program (SSB, 2009)

Radioisotope Power Systems: An Imperative for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration (SSB with ASEB, 2009)

Ensuring the Climate Record from the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft: Elements of a Strategy to Recover Measurement Capabilities Lost in Program Restructuring (SSB, 2008)

Launching Science: Science Opportunities Provided by NASA’s Constellation System (SSB with ASEB, 2008)

Opening New Frontiers in Space: Choices for the Next New Frontiers Announcement of Opportunity (SSB, 2008)

Science Opportunities Enabled by NASA’s Constellation System: Interim Report (SSB with ASEB, 2008)

Severe Space Weather Events—Understanding Societal and Economic Impacts: A Workshop Report (SSB, 2008)

Space Science and the International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Summary of a Workshop (SSB, 2008)

Assessment of the NASA Astrobiology Institute (SSB, 2007)

An Astrobiology Strategy for the Exploration of Mars (SSB with the Board on Life Sciences [BLS], 2007)

Building a Better NASA Workforce: Meeting the Workforce Needs for the National Vision for Space Exploration (SSB with ASEB, 2007)

Decadal Science Strategy Surveys: Report of a Workshop (SSB, 2007)

Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond (SSB, 2007)

Exploring Organic Environments in the Solar System (SSB with the Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology, 2007)

Grading NASA’s Solar System Exploration Program: A Midterm Review (SSB, 2007)

The Limits of Organic Life in Planetary Systems (SSB with BLS, 2007)

NASA’s Beyond Einstein Program: An Architecture for Implementation (SSB with BPA, 2007)

Options to Ensure the Climate Record from the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft: A Workshop Report (SSB, 2007)

A Performance Assessment of NASA’s Astrophysics Program (SSB with BPA, 2007)

Portals to the Universe: The NASA Astronomy Science Centers (SSB, 2007)

The Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon (SSB, 2007)

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13117.
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COMMITTEE ON THE PLANETARY SCIENCE DECADAL SURVEY

Steering Group

STEVEN W. SQUYRES, Cornell University, Chair

LAURENCE A. SODERBLOM, U.S. Geological Survey, Vice Chair

WENDY M. CALVIN, University of Nevada, Reno

DALE CRUIKSHANK, NASA Ames Research Center

PASCALE EHRENFREUND, George Washington University

G. SCOTT HUBBARD, Stanford University

WESLEY T. HUNTRESS, JR., Carnegie Institution of Washington (retired) (until November 2009)

MARGARET G. KIVELSON, University of California, Los Angeles

B. GENTRY LEE, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

JANE LUU, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lincoln Laboratory

STEPHEN MACKWELL, Lunar and Planetary Institute

RALPH L. McNUTT, JR., Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory

HARRY Y. McSWEEN, JR., University of Tennessee, Knoxville

GEORGE A. PAULIKAS, The Aerospace Corporation (retired) (from January 2010)

AMY SIMON-MILLER, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

DAVID J. STEVENSON, California Institute of Technology

A. THOMAS YOUNG, Lockheed Martin Corporation (retired)

Inner Planets Panel

ELLEN R. STOFAN, Proxemy Research, Inc., Chair

STEPHEN MACKWELL, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Vice Chair

BARBARA A. COHEN, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center

MARTHA S. GILMORE, Wesleyan University

LORI GLAZE, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

DAVID H. GRINSPOON, Denver Museum of Nature and Science

STEVEN A. HAUCK II, Case Western Reserve University

AYANNA M. HOWARD, Georgia Institute of Technology

CHARLES K. SHEARER, University of New Mexico

DOUGLAS S. STETSON, Space Science and Exploration Consulting Group

EDWARD M. STOLPER, California Institute of Technology

ALLAN H. TREIMAN, Lunar and Planetary Institute

Mars Panel

PHILIP R. CHRISTENSEN, Arizona State University, Chair

WENDY M. CALVIN, University of Nevada, Reno, Vice Chair

RAYMOND E. ARVIDSON, Washington University

ROBERT D. BRAUN, Georgia Institute of Technology (until February 2010)

GLENN E. CUNNINGHAM, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (retired)

DAVID DES MARAIS, NASA Ames Research Center (until August 2010)

LINDA T. ELKINS-TANTON, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

FRANCOIS FORGET, Université de Paris 6

JOHN P. GROTZINGER, California Institute of Technology

PENELOPE KING, University of New Mexico

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13117.
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PHILIPPE LOGNONNE, Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris

PAUL R. MAHAFFY, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

LISA M. PRATT, Indiana University

Giant Planets Panel

HEIDI B. HAMMEL, Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., Chair

AMY SIMON-MILLER, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Vice Chair

RETA F. BEEBE, New Mexico State University

JOHN R. CASANI, Jet Propulsion Laboratory

JOHN CLARKE, Boston University

BRIGETTE HESMAN, University of Maryland

WILLIAM B. HUBBARD, University of Arizona

MARK S. MARLEY, NASA Ames Research Center

PHILIP D. NICHOLSON, Cornell University

R. WAYNE RICHIE, NASA Langley Research Center (retired)

KUNIO M. SAYANAGI, California Institute of Technology

Satellites Panel

JOHN SPENCER, Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, Chair

DAVID J. STEVENSON, California Institute of Technology, Vice Chair

GLENN FOUNTAIN, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory

CAITLIN ANN GRIFFITH, University of Arizona

KRISHAN KHURANA, University of California, Los Angeles

CHRISTOPHER P. McKAY, NASA Ames Research Center

FRANCIS NIMMO, University of California, Santa Cruz

LOUISE M. PROCKTER, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory

GERALD SCHUBERT, University of California, Los Angeles

THOMAS R. SPILKER, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

ELIZABETH P. TURTLE, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory

J. HUNTER WAITE, JR., Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio

Primitive Bodies Panel

JOSEPH F. VEVERKA, Cornell University, Chair

HARRY Y. McSWEEN, JR., University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Vice Chair

ERIK ASPHAUG, University of California, Santa Cruz

MICHAEL E. BROWN, California Institute of Technology

DONALD E. BROWNLEE, University of Washington

MARC BUIE, Southwest Research Institute, Boulder

TIMOTHY J. McCOY, Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

MARC D. RAYMAN, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

EDWARD REYNOLDS, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory

MARK SEPHTON, Imperial College London

JESSICA SUNSHINE, University of Maryland

FAITH VILAS, Planetary Science Institute

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13117.
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Staff

DAVID H. SMITH, Senior Program Officer, Study Director

DWAYNE DAY, Senior Program Officer

ABIGAIL SHEFFER, Associate Program Officer

CATHERINE A. GRUBER, Editor

DIONNA WILLIAMS, Program Associate

LEWIS GROSWALD, Research Associate

RODNEY HOWARD, Senior Program Assistant

ELENA AMADOR, Lloyd V. Berkner Space Policy Intern (2009)

GABRIELE BETANCOURT-MARTINEZ, Lloyd V. Berkner Space Policy Intern (2010)

JORDAN BOCK, Lloyd V. Berkner Space Policy Intern (2009)

DARA FISHER, Lloyd V. Berkner Space Policy Intern (2010)

ABIGAIL FRAEMAN, Space Policy Intern (2009)

ANDREAS FRICK, Lloyd V. Berkner Space Policy Intern (2010)

ANGIE WOLFGANG, Lloyd V. Berkner Space Policy Intern (2009)

MICHAEL H. MOLONEY, Director, Space Studies Board

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13117.
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SPACE STUDIES BOARD

CHARLES F. KENNEL, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, Chair

JOHN KLINEBERG, Space Systems/Loral (retired), Vice Chair

MARK R. ABBOTT, Oregon State University

STEVEN J. BATTEL, Battel Engineering

YVONNE C. BRILL, Aerospace Consultant

ELIZABETH R. CANTWELL, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

ANDREW B. CHRISTENSEN, Dixie State College and Aerospace Corporation

ALAN DRESSLER, Observatories of the Carnegie Institution

JACK D. FELLOWS, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research

HEIDI B. HAMMEL, Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc.

FIONA A. HARRISON, California Institute of Technology

ANTHONY C. JANETOS, University of Maryland

JOAN JOHNSON-FREESE, Naval War College

ROBERT P. LIN, University of California, Berkeley

MOLLY K. MACAULEY, Resources for the Future

JOHN F. MUSTARD, Brown University

ROBERT T. PAPPALARDO, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

JAMES PAWELCZYK, Pennsylvania State University

MARCIA J. RIEKE, University of Arizona

DAVID N. SPERGEL, Princeton University

WARREN M. WASHINGTON, National Center for Atmospheric Research

CLIFFORD M. WILL, Washington University

THOMAS H. ZURBUCHEN, University of Michigan

MICHAEL H. MOLONEY, Director (from April 1, 2010)

RICHARD E. ROWBERG, Interim Director (from March 2, 2009, to March 31, 2010)

MARCIA S. SMITH, Director (until March 1, 2009)

CARMELA J. CHAMBERLAIN, Administrative Coordinator

TANJA PILZAK, Manager, Program Operations

CELESTE A. NAYLOR, Information Management Associate

CHRISTINA O. SHIPMAN, Financial Officer

SANDRA WILSON, Financial Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13117.
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Preface

Strategic planning activities within NASA’s Science Mission Directorate (SMD) draw heavily on reports issued by the National Research Council (NRC), particularly those from the Space Studies Board (SSB). Prime among these SSB inputs is identification of priority science and missions in the so-called decadal surveys. The first true decadal strategy for the planetary sciences, New Frontiers in the Solar System: An Integrated Exploration Strategy, was published in 2003. That comprehensive study canvassed planetary science activities, listed the key science questions, and recommended specific spacecraft missions for the period 2003-2013. Supplemented by several subsequent SSB studies—for example, Opening New Frontiers in Space: Choices for the Next New Frontiers Announcement of Opportunity (2008), The Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon (2007), and Grading NASA’s Solar System Exploration Program: A Midterm Report (2007)—the 2003 report provided key guidance for SMD’s planetary science programs during the first decade of the 21st century.

The successful implementation of many of the missions recommended in the preceding studies, combined with important discoveries by a variety of ground- and space-based research activities, created the demand for a second decadal survey of the planetary sciences. Thus, in December 2008, Edward J. Weiler, NASA’s associate administrator for SMD, requested that a new decadal strategy study be initiated (Appendix A). Moreover, the request was seconded by the leadership of the National Science Foundation’s (NSF’s) Division of Astronomical Sciences. Specific tasks outlined in the request included the following:

• An overview of planetary science—what it is, why it is a compelling undertaking, and the relationship between space- and ground-based planetary science research;

• A broad survey of the current state of knowledge of the solar system;

• An inventory of the top-level science questions that should guide flight programs and supporting research programs;

• Recommendations on the optimum balance among small, medium, and large missions and supporting activities;

• An assessment of NSF-supported infrastructure;

• A discussion of strategic technology development needs and opportunities;

• A prioritized list of major flight investigations in the New Frontiers and larger classes recommended for initiation over the decade 2013-2022;

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13117.
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• Recommendations for supporting research required to maximize the science return from the flight investigations; and

• A discussion of the opportunities for conducting science investigations involving humans in situ and the value of human-tended investigations relative to those performed solely robotically.

In response to this request, the NRC appointed the Committee on the Planetary Science Decadal Survey, consisting of a 16-member steering group and 54 additional experts organized into five topical panels. For reasons of consistency and continuity, the panels were organized according to planetary objects—that is, inner planets (Mercury, Venus, and the Moon), Mars, giant planets, satellites of the giant planets, and primitive bodies—as in the 2003 planetary decadal survey. Unlike the 2003 survey, however, the present survey omits an astrobiology panel; instead, individuals with appropriate expertise were distributed among the five named panels.

The study was formally initiated at a meeting of the steering group held in Washington, D.C., on July 6-8, 2009. Work continued at meetings held in Irvine, California (November 16-18, 2009, and February 22-24, 2010) and concluded with additional meetings in Washington, D.C. (July 13-15 and August 3-4, 2010). In parallel with these meetings, the committee’s five supporting panels held their own information-gathering and deliberative meetings. Each panel met three times:

• Inner Planets Panel—August 26-28, 2009 (Washington, D.C.), October 26-28, 2009 (Irvine, California), and April 21-23, 2010 (Boulder, Colorado);

• Mars Panel—September 9-11, 2009 (Tempe, Arizona), November 4-6, 2009 (Pasadena, California), and April 14-16, 2010 (Boulder, Colorado);

• Giant Planets Panel—August 24-26, 2009 (Washington, D.C.), October 26-28, 2009 (Irvine, California), and May 5-7, 2010 (Boston, Massachusetts);

• Satellites Panel—August 24-26, 2009 (Washington, D.C.), September 21-23, 2009 (Irvine, California), and April 12-14, 2010 (Boulder, Colorado); and

• Primitive Bodies Panel—September 9-11, 2009 (Washington, D.C.), October 28-30, 2009 (Irvine, California), and April 26-28, 2010 (Knoxville, Tennessee).

The committee made extensive use of teleconferences, e-mail, and password-protected websites to facilitate its work. Moreover to ensure the widest possible community participation in the committee’s meetings, all were webcast thanks to technical assistance provided by the NASA Astrobiology Institute.

The planetary science community is extremely diverse in its geographic distribution, scientific interests, research techniques and approaches, and institutional affiliations. Thus, it was clear from the study’s initiation that the committee must successfully reflect the interests of this community and that, to achieve a broad consensus of opinion in support of the survey’s recommendations, it would be necessary to solicit and consider a wide variety of inputs from the scientific community, from NASA and NSF and their respective advisory committees, from other government agencies, from major universities and research institutes, and from the interested public. Such inputs were obtained through oral presentations made to the committee, through webcasts, and through numerous public forums and town hall sessions at major national and international community meetings, and by stimulating the drafting of a total of 199 community-authored white papers on a wide range of scientific subjects that covered essentially all topics within the decadal survey’s purview.* To ensure that the white papers would receive appropriate consideration, the committee requested that they be available no later than September 15, 2009, that is, prior to the steering group’s and panels’ second meetings.

The panels were responsible for preparing a broad survey of the current state of knowledge of the solar system and for identifying the key science questions and measurement objectives most appropriate for being addressed in the period 2013-2022. The panels also assessed current research programs and infrastructure managed by NASA

_____________

* The contributed papers are listed in Appendix B and are available at http://www8.nationalacademies.org/ssbsurvey/publicview.aspx.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13117.
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and NSF. Finally, using information in the white papers and from other community inputs, the panels identified important spacecraft missions capable of addressing key science questions for those planetary bodies within their respective purviews.

To ensure that the identified mission concepts were sufficiently mature for subsequent evaluation and prioritization, the committee commissioned detailed technical studies from several leading design centers, including the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, and the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. One or more “science champions,” drawn from the ranks of the panels, was attached to each center’s study team to ensure that the concepts remained true to the science and measurement objectives of their originating panel. In addition, four detailed studies of key technologies were also conducted at the panels’ request. For details on the mission and technology reports completed, see Appendix G.

Prior decadal surveys in planetary and other space sciences have been criticized for not paying appropriate attention to the fiscal and technical realism of recommended missions. To rectify this shortcoming and to be responsive to the statement of task’s call for “independent and expert cost analysis,” the NRC contracted with the Aerospace Corporation to provide cost and technical evaluations (see Appendix C) of a priority subset of missions studied by the design centers.

Finally, the panels’ various scientific inputs, assessments, and recommendations for new ground- and space-based initiatives were integrated by the steering group. The integration and overall prioritization of new spacecraft initiatives were heavily influenced by the cost and technical evaluations provided by the Aerospace Corporation.

Final drafts of the five panel reports were completed in August 2010. The steering group assembled the first full draft of this survey report in September. The text was sent to external reviewers in early October, was revised between December 2010 and February 2011, and was formally approved for release by the NRC on February 23, 2011. A version of this report in prepublication form was released to NASA and NSF on February 25, 2011, and to the public on March 7, 2011. This, the final printed version of the report, supersedes the prepublication report.

The work of the committee was made easier thanks to the important help given by individuals too numerous to list, at a variety of public and private organizations, who made presentations at committee meetings, drafted white papers, and participated in missions studies. In addition, the following graduate students greatly assisted the work of the committee by taking notes at meetings: Michael Busch, Serina Diniega, Adrienne Dove, Raina Gough, Scott Guzewich, Paul Hayne, Robert Lossing, Kennda Lynch, Andrew Poppe, Kelsi Singer, and Patrick Whelley. Finally, the committee acknowledges the exceptionally important contributions made by the following individuals at the Aerospace Corporation: Randy Persinger (team leader), Mark Barrera, Dave Bearden, Mark Cowdin, Shirin Eftekharzadeh, Debra Emmons, Matt Hart, Robert Kellogg, Eric Mahr, Mark Mueller, Geoffrey Reber, and Carl Rice.

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process.

We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Charles Alcock, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics; Kyle T. Alfriend, Texas A&M University; Fran Bagenal, University of Colorado; Richard P. Binzel, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Roger D. Blandford, Stanford University; Joseph A. Burns, Cornell University; Athena Coustenis, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon; Victoria E. Hamilton, Southwest Research Institute; Harald Hiesinger, Westfalische Wilhelms-Universitat; Andrew Ingersoll, California Institute of Technology; N. Jeremy Kasdin, Princeton University; Eugene H. Levy, Rice University; Jonathan I. Lunine, University of Rome Tor Vergata; Alfred McEwen, University of Arizona; John F. Mustard, Brown University; Keith Noll, Space Telescope Science Institute; Carlé Pieters, Brown University; and Daniel Scheeres, University of Colorado.

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13117.
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its release. The review of this report was overseen by Richard A. McCray, University of Colorado, Boulder, and Bernard F. Burke, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13117.
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4  THE PRIMITIVE BODIES: BUILDING BLOCKS OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM

Science Goals for the Study of Primitive Bodies

Decipher the Record in Primitive Bodies of Epochs and Processes Not Obtainable Elsewhere

Understand the Role of Primitive Bodies as Building Blocks for Planets and Life

Interconnections

Supporting Research and Related Activities

Instrumentation and Infrastructure

Advancing Studies of the Primitive Bodies

Notes and References

5  THE INNER PLANETS: THE KEY TO UNDERSTANDING EARTH-LIKE WORLDS

Science Goals for the Study of Mercury, Venus, and the Moon

Understand the Origin and Diversity of Terrestrial Planets

Understand How the Evolution of Terrestrial Planets Enables and Limits the Origin and Evolution of Life

Understand the Processes That Control Climate on Earth-Like Planets

Interconnections

Supporting Research and Related Activities

Technology Development

Advancing Studies of the Inner Planets

Notes and References

6  MARS: EVOLUTION OF AN EARTH-LIKE WORLD

Science Goals for the Study of Mars

Determine If Life Ever Arose on Mars

Understand the Processes and History of Climate

Determine the Evolution of the Surface and Interior

Interconnections

Importance of Mars Sample Return

Supporting Research and Related Activities

Technology Development

Instrumentation and Infrastructure

Advancing Studies of Mars

References

7  THE GIANT PLANETS: LOCAL LABORATORIES AND GROUND TRUTH FOR PLANETS BEYOND

Science Goals for the Study of Giant Planets

Giant Planets as Ground Truth for Exoplanets

Giant Planets’ Role in Promoting a Habitable Planetary System

Giant Planets as Laboratories for Properties and Processes on Earth

Interconnections

Supporting Research and Related Activities

Instrumentation and Infrastructure

Advancing Studies of the Giant Planets

Note and References

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13117.
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8  SATELLITES: ACTIVE WORLDS AND EXTREME ENVIRONMENTS

Science Goals for Studies of Planetary Satellites

How Did the Satellites of the Outer Solar System Form and Evolve?

What Processes Control the Present-Day Behavior of These Bodies?

What Are the Processes That Result in Habitable Environments?

Interconnections

Supporting Research and Related Activities

Instrumentation and Infrastructure

Advancing Studies of the Satellites of the Giant Planets

Notes and References

9  RECOMMENDED FLIGHT INVESTIGATIONS: 2013-2022

Criteria for Judging Mission and Related Priorities

Underlying Programmatic Requirements

Missions Recommended Previously and Cost Considerations

Mission Study Process and Cost and Technical Evaluation

Definition of Mission Cost Classes

Balance Among Mission Cost Classes

Small Missions

Prioritized Medium- and Large-Class Flight Missions: 2013-2022

Example Flight Programs for the Decade 2013-2022

Deferred High-Priority Missions

Launch Vehicle Costs

The Need for Plutonium-238

Opportunities for Intra-Agency, Interagency, and International Collaboration

Notes and References

10  PLANETARY SCIENCE RESEARCH AND INFRASTRUCTURE

Supporting Research and Related Activities at NASA

NASA Instrumentation and Infrastructure

Supporting Research and Related Activities at NSF

NSF Instrumentation and Infrastructure

Notes and References

11  THE ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT IN PLANETARY EXPLORATION

Technology: Portal into the Solar System

Technology Needs

Recommended Technology Investments

12  A LOOK TO THE FUTURE

Preparing for the Next Planetary Decadal Survey

Note and Reference

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13117.
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In recent years, planetary science has seen a tremendous growth in new knowledge. Deposits of water ice exist at the Moon's poles. Discoveries on the surface of Mars point to an early warm wet climate, and perhaps conditions under which life could have emerged. Liquid methane rain falls on Saturn's moon Titan, creating rivers, lakes, and geologic landscapes with uncanny resemblances to Earth's.

Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022 surveys the current state of knowledge of the solar system and recommends a suite of planetary science flagship missions for the decade 2013-2022 that could provide a steady stream of important new discoveries about the solar system. Research priorities defined in the report were selected through a rigorous review that included input from five expert panels. NASA's highest priority large mission should be the Mars Astrobiology Explorer Cacher (MAX-C), a mission to Mars that could help determine whether the planet ever supported life and could also help answer questions about its geologic and climatic history. Other projects should include a mission to Jupiter's icy moon Europa and its subsurface ocean, and the Uranus Orbiter and Probe mission to investigate that planet's interior structure, atmosphere, and composition. For medium-size missions, Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022 recommends that NASA select two new missions to be included in its New Frontiers program, which explores the solar system with frequent, mid-size spacecraft missions. If NASA cannot stay within budget for any of these proposed flagship projects, it should focus on smaller, less expensive missions first.

Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022 suggests that the National Science Foundation expand its funding for existing laboratories and establish new facilities as needed. It also recommends that the program enlist the participation of international partners. This report is a vital resource for government agencies supporting space science, the planetary science community, and the public.

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