National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Review of the EPA's Economic Analysis of Final Water Quality Standards for Nutrients for Lakes and Flowing Waters in Florida. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13376.
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REVIEW OF THE EPA’S ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF FINAL WATER QUALITY STANDARDS FOR NUTRIENTS FOR LAKES AND FLOWING WATERS IN FLORIDA

Committee to Review EPA’s Economic Analysis of Final Water Quality
Standards for Nutrients for Lakes and Flowing Waters in Florida

Water Science and Technology Board

Division on Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
             OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Review of the EPA's Economic Analysis of Final Water Quality Standards for Nutrients for Lakes and Flowing Waters in Florida. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13376.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS     500 Fifth Street, NW     Washington, DC 20001

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the panel responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

Support for this study was provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under grant EP-C-09-003, task order 15. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-25493-9
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-25493-0

Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 5th Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu.

Copyright 2012 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Review of the EPA's Economic Analysis of Final Water Quality Standards for Nutrients for Lakes and Flowing Waters in Florida. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13376.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

www.nationalacademies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Review of the EPA's Economic Analysis of Final Water Quality Standards for Nutrients for Lakes and Flowing Waters in Florida. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13376.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Review of the EPA's Economic Analysis of Final Water Quality Standards for Nutrients for Lakes and Flowing Waters in Florida. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13376.
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COMMITTEE TO REVIEW EPA’S ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF FINAL WATER QUALITY STANDARDS FOR NUTRIENTS FOR LAKES AND FLOWING WATERS IN FLORIDA

GLEN T. DAIGGER, Chair, CH2M Hill, Englewood, Colorado

OTTO C. DOERING, Vice Chair, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana

LEONARD A. SHABMAN, Vice Chair, Resources for the Future, Arlington, Virginia

WALTER L. BAKER, Utah Division of Water Quality, Salt Lake City

ALLEN P. DAVIS, University of Maryland, College Park

K. WILLIAM EASTER, University of Minnesota, St. Paul

WENDY D. GRAHAM, University of Florida, Gainesville

ARTURO A. KELLER, University of California, Santa Barbara

DAVID J. MULLA, University of Minnesota, St. Paul

KEVIN M. SHERMAN, Quanics, Inc., Crestwood, Kentucky

KURT STEPHENSON, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg

MICHAEL B. TATE, Kansas Department of Health and Environment, Topeka

ALAN H. VICORY, Ohio River Valley Water Sanitation Commission, Cincinnati, Ohio

LAJUANA S. WILCHER, English, Lucas, Priest, & Owsley, L.L.P., Bowling Green, Kentucky

NRC Staff

LAURA J. EHLERS, Study Director

JEFFREY JACOBS, Scholar

MICHAEL J. STOEVER, Research Associate

ANITA A. HALL, Senior Program Associate

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Review of the EPA's Economic Analysis of Final Water Quality Standards for Nutrients for Lakes and Flowing Waters in Florida. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13376.
×

WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY BOARD

DONALD I SIEGEL, Chair, Syracuse University, New York

LISA ALVAREZ-COHEN, University of California, Berkeley

EDWARD J. BOUWER, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland

YU-PING CHIN, Ohio State University, Columbus

OTTO C. DOERING, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana

M. SIOBHAN FENNESSY, Kenyon College, Gambier, Ohio

BEN GRUMBLES, Clean Water America Alliance, Washington, D.C.

GEORGE R. HALLBERG, The Cadmus Group, Watertown, Massachusetts

KENNETH R. HERD, Southwest Florida Water Management District, Brooksville, Florida

GEORGE M. HORNBERGER, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee

KIMBERLY L. JONES, Howard University, Washington, D.C.

LARRY LARSON, Association of State Floodplain Managers, Madison, Wisconsin

DAVID H. MOREAU, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

DENNIS D. MURPHY, University of Nevada, Reno

MARYLYNN V. YATES, University of California, Riverside

Staff

JEFFREY JACOBS, Director

LAURA J. EHLERS, Senior Program Officer

LAURA E. HELSABECK, Senior Program Officer

STEPHANIE E. JOHNSON, Senior Program Officer

M. JEANNE AQUILINO, Financial and Administrative Associate

ANITA A. HALL, Senior Program Associate

MICHAEL J. STOEVER, Research Associate

SARAH E. BRENNAN, Senior Program Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Review of the EPA's Economic Analysis of Final Water Quality Standards for Nutrients for Lakes and Flowing Waters in Florida. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13376.
×

Acknowledgment of Reviewers

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

ROBERT K. DAVIS, University of Colorado, Boulder (emeritus)

PATRICK L. BREZONIK, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis (emeritus)

ROBIN K. CRAIG, Florida State University, Tallahassee

ANDREW FISK, Connecticut River Watershed Council, Greenfield, Massachusetts

J. WALTER MILON, University of Central Florida, Orlando

PATRICIA E. NORRIS, Michigan State University, East Lansing

DAVID E. RADCLIFFE, University of Georgia, Athens

DAVID STENSEL, University of Washington, Seattle

ROBERT G. TRAVER, Villanova University, Villanova, Pennsylvania

MYRON F. UMAN, Science and Technology for Public Policy LLC, West Palm Beach, Florida

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Review of the EPA's Economic Analysis of Final Water Quality Standards for Nutrients for Lakes and Flowing Waters in Florida. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13376.
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or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Robert A. Frosch, Harvard University and John J. Boland, Johns Hopkins University. Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Review of the EPA's Economic Analysis of Final Water Quality Standards for Nutrients for Lakes and Flowing Waters in Florida. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13376.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Review of the EPA's Economic Analysis of Final Water Quality Standards for Nutrients for Lakes and Flowing Waters in Florida. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13376.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Review of the EPA's Economic Analysis of Final Water Quality Standards for Nutrients for Lakes and Flowing Waters in Florida. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13376.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Review of the EPA's Economic Analysis of Final Water Quality Standards for Nutrients for Lakes and Flowing Waters in Florida. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13376.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Review of the EPA's Economic Analysis of Final Water Quality Standards for Nutrients for Lakes and Flowing Waters in Florida. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13376.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Review of the EPA's Economic Analysis of Final Water Quality Standards for Nutrients for Lakes and Flowing Waters in Florida. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13376.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Review of the EPA's Economic Analysis of Final Water Quality Standards for Nutrients for Lakes and Flowing Waters in Florida. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13376.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Review of the EPA's Economic Analysis of Final Water Quality Standards for Nutrients for Lakes and Flowing Waters in Florida. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13376.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Review of the EPA's Economic Analysis of Final Water Quality Standards for Nutrients for Lakes and Flowing Waters in Florida. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13376.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Review of the EPA's Economic Analysis of Final Water Quality Standards for Nutrients for Lakes and Flowing Waters in Florida. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13376.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Review of the EPA's Economic Analysis of Final Water Quality Standards for Nutrients for Lakes and Flowing Waters in Florida. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13376.
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The Environmental Protection Agency's estimate of the costs associated with implementing numeric nutrient criteria in Florida's waterways was significantly lower than many stakeholders expected. This discrepancy was due, in part, to the fact that the Environmental Protection Agency's analysis considered only the incremental cost of reducing nutrients in waters it considered "newly impaired" as a result of the new criteria-not the total cost of improving water quality in Florida. The incremental approach is appropriate for this type of assessment, but the Environmental Protection Agency's cost analysis would have been more accurate if it better described the differences between the new numeric criteria rule and the narrative rule it would replace, and how the differences affect the costs of implementing nutrient reductions over time, instead of at a fixed time point. Such an analysis would have more accurately described which pollutant sources, for example municipal wastewater treatment plants or agricultural operations, would bear the costs over time under the different rules and would have better illuminated the uncertainties in making such cost estimates.

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