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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2012. Improving Food Safety Through a One Health Approach: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13423.
×

IMPROVING FOOD SAFETY
THROUGH A ONE HEALTH APPROACH




WORKSHOP SUMMARY







Eileen R. Choffnes, David A. Relman, LeighAnne Olsen, Rebekah Hutton,
and Alison Mack, Rapporteurs

Forum on Microbial Threats

Board on Global Health


INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE
OF NATIONAL ACADEMIES





THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washinton, D.C
www.nop.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2012. Improving Food Safety Through a One Health Approach: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13423.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS     500 Fifth Street, NW     Washington, DC 20001

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.

Financial support for this project was provided by the American Society for Microbiology; Burroughs Wellcome Fund; GlaxoSmithKline; Infectious Diseases Society of America; Merck Company Foundation; sanofi pasteur; U.S. Agency for International Development; U.S. Department of Defense, Department of the Army: Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System, and the Medical Research and Materiel Command; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fogarty International Center, Food and Drug Administration, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, and National Institutes of Health; U.S. Department of Homeland Security; and U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. The views presented in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-25933-0

International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-25933-9

ISBN 0-309-25936-3

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Copyright 2012 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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Cover images: (Front): Courtesy of Rebekah Hutton; (Back): Adapted from Hufnagel, L., D. Brockmann, and T. Geisel. 2004. Forecast and control of epidemics in a globalized world. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 101(42):15124-15129.

The serpent has been a symbol of long life, healing, and knowledge among almost all cultures and religions since the beginning of recorded history. The serpent adopted as a logotype by the Institute of Medicine is a relief carving from ancient Greece, now held by the Staatliche Museen in Berlin.

Suggested citation: IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2012. Improving food safety through a One Health approach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2012. Improving Food Safety Through a One Health Approach: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13423.
×

images

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2012. Improving Food Safety Through a One Health Approach: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13423.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Hation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

www.national-academies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2012. Improving Food Safety Through a One Health Approach: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13423.
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FORUM ON MICROBIAL THREATS1

DAVID A. RELMAN (Chair), Stanford University and Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, California

JAMES M. HUGHES (Vice-Chair), Global Infectious Diseases Program, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia

LONNIE J. KING (Vice-Chair), The Ohio State University, Columbus

KEVIN ANDERSON, Biological and Chemical Defense Division, Science and Technology Directorate, Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC

RUTH L. BERKELMAN,2 Center for Public Health Preparedness and Research, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia

DAVID BLAZES,3 Division of Global Emerging Infectious Surveillance, Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Silver Spring, Maryland

ENRIQUETA C. BOND, Burroughs Wellcome Fund (Emeritus), Marshall, Virginia

ROGER G. BREEZE, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California

PAULA R. BRYANT, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Medical S&T Division, Fort Belvoir, Virginia

JOHN E. BURRIS, Burroughs Wellcome Fund, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina

ARTURO CASADEVALL, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York

PETER DASZAK, EcoHealth Alliance, New York, New York

JEFFREY S. DUCHIN, Public Health—Seattle and King County, Washington

JONATHAN EISEN, Genome Center, University of California, Davis, California

RALPH L. ERICKSON, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland

MARK B. FEINBERG, Merck Vaccine Division, Merck & Co., Inc., West Point, Pennsylvania

JACQUELINE FLETCHER, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma

CLAIRE FRASER,4 Institute for Genome Sciences, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland

JESSE L. GOODMAN, Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, Maryland

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1 Institute of Medicine Forums and Roundtables do not issue, review, or approve individual docu ments. The responsibility for the published workshop summary rests with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution.

2 Forum member until December 31, 2011.

3 Forum member until March 31, 2012.

4 Forum member since June 1, 2012.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2012. Improving Food Safety Through a One Health Approach: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13423.
×

EDUARDO GOTUZZO, Instituto de Medicina Tropical—Alexander von Humbolt, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru

CAROLE A. HEILMAN, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland

DAVID L. HEYMANN, Health Protection Agency, London, United Kingdom

ZHI HONG, GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina

PHILIP HOSBACH, sanofi pasteur, Swiftwater, Pennsylvania

STEPHEN ALBERT JOHNSTON, Arizona BioDesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona

KENT KESTER,5 Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland

GERALD T. KEUSCH, Boston University School of Medicine and Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts

RIMA F. KHABBAZ, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia

STANLEY M. LEMON, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina

EDWARD McSWEEGAN, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland

MARK A. MILLER, Fogarty International Center, Bethesda, Maryland

JULIE PAVLIN,6 Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Silver Spring, Maryland

GEORGE POSTE, Complex Adaptive Systems Initiative, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona

DAVID RIZZO, Department of Plant Pathology, University of California, Davis, California

GARY A. ROSELLE, Veterans Health Administration, Department of Veterans Affairs, Cincinnati, Ohio

ALAN S. RUDOLPH, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Fort Belvoir, Virginia

KEVIN RUSSELL, Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Silver Spring, Maryland

JANET SHOEMAKER, American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC

P. FREDERICK SPARLING, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina

TERENCE TAYLOR,7 International Council for the Life Sciences, Arlington, Virginia

MURRAY TROSTLE, U.S. Agency for International Development, Washington, DC

MARY E. WILSON, Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts

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5 Forum member since June 1, 2012.

6 Forum member since April 1, 2012.

7 Forum member until December 31, 2011.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2012. Improving Food Safety Through a One Health Approach: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13423.
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Staff

EILEEN CHOFFNES, Scholar and Director

LEIGHANNE OLSEN, Program Officer

KATHERINE McCLURE, Senior Program Associate

REBEKAH HUTTON, Research Associate

PAMELA BERTELSON, Senior Program Assistant

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2012. Improving Food Safety Through a One Health Approach: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13423.
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BOARD ON GLOBAL HEALTH1

RICHARD GUERRANT (Chair), Thomas H. Hunter Professor of International Medicine and Director, Center for Global Health, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, Virginia

JO IVEY BOUFFORD (IOM Foreign Secretary), President, New York Academy of Medicine, New York, New York

CLAIRE V. BROOME, Adjunct Professor, Division of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia

JACQUELYN C. CAMPBELL, Anna D. Wolf Chair, and Professor, Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing, Baltimore, Maryland

THOMAS J. COATES, Michael and Sue Steinberg Professor of Global AIDS, Research Co-Director, UC Global Health Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California

GARY DARMSTADT, Director, Family Health Division, Global Health Program, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, Washington

VALENTIN FUSTER, Director, Wiener Cardiovascular Institute Kravis Cardiovascular Health Center Professor, Cardiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, New York

JACOB A. GAYLE, Vice President, Community Affairs, Executive Director, Medtronic Foundation, Minneapolis, Minnesota

GLENDA E. GRAY, Executive Director, Perinatal HIV Research Unit, Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital, University of the Witwatersrand, Diepkloof, South Africa

STEPHEN W. HARGARTEN, Professor and Chair, Emergency Medicine, Director, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin

JAMES HOSPEDALES, Coordinator, Chronic Disease Project, Health Surveillance and Disease Management Area, Pan American Health Organization and World Health Organization, Washington, DC

PETER J. HOTEZ, Professor and Chair, Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington, DC

CLARION JOHNSON, Global Medical Director, Medicine and Occupational Medicine Department, Exxon Mobil, Fairfax, Virginia

FITZHUGH MULLAN, Professor, Department of Health Policy, The George Washington University, Washington, DC

OLUFUNMILAYO F. OLOPADE, Walter L. Palmer Distinguished Service Professor of Medicine, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois

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1 Institute of Medicine boards do not review or approve individual workshop summaries. The responsibility for the content of the workshop summary rests with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2012. Improving Food Safety Through a One Health Approach: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13423.
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GUY PALMER, Regents Professor of Pathology and Infectious Diseases, Director of the School for Global Animal Health, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington

THOMAS C. QUINN, Associate Director for International Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Professor of Medicine, International Health, Epidemiology, and Molecular Biology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland

JENNIFER PRAH-RUGER, Associate Professor, Division of Health Policy and Administration, Yale University School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut

Staff

PATRICK KELLEY, Director

ANGELA CHRISTIAN, Program Associate

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2012. Improving Food Safety Through a One Health Approach: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13423.
×

PLANNING COMMITTEE ON GLOBAL INFECTIOUS
DISEASES AND FOOD SAFETY
1

ROGER G. BREEZE, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California

PETER DASZAK, EcoHealth Alliance, New York, New York

DAVID L. HEYMANN, Health Protection Agency, London, United Kingdom

JAMES M. HUGHES, Global Infectious Diseases Program, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia

GERALD T. KEUSCH, Boston University School of Medicine and Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts

RIMA F. KHABBAZ, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia

LONNIE J. KING, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio

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1 Institute of Medicine planning committees are solely responsible for organizing the workshop, identifying topics, and choosing speakers. The responsibility for the published workshop summary rests solely with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2012. Improving Food Safety Through a One Health Approach: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13423.
×

Reviewers

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

Roger G. Breeze, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California

David Heymann, Health Protection Agency, London, United Kingdom

James M. Hughes, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia

Stanley M. Lemon, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina

David Rizzo, University of California, Davis, California

Jørgen Schlundt, Danish Technical University, Lyngby, Denmark

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they did not see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Dr. Melvin Worth. Appointed by the Institute of Medicine, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authors and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2012. Improving Food Safety Through a One Health Approach: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13423.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2012. Improving Food Safety Through a One Health Approach: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13423.
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Acknowledgments

The Forum on Emerging Infections was created by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) in 1996 in response to a request from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The purpose of the Forum is to provide structured opportunities for leaders from government, academia, and industry to regularly meet and examine issues of shared concern regarding research, prevention, detection, and management of emerging, reemerging, and novel infectious diseases in humans, plants, and animals. In pursuing this task, the Forum provides a venue to foster the exchange of information and ideas, identify areas in need of greater attention, clarify policy issues by enhancing knowledge and identifying points of agreement, and inform decision makers about science and policy issues. The Forum seeks to illuminate issues rather than resolve them. For this reason, it does not provide advice or recommendations on any specific policy initiative pending before any agency or organization. Its value derives instead from the diversity of its membership and from the contributions that individual members make throughout the activities of the Forum. In September 2003, the Forum changed its name to the Forum on Microbial Threats.

The Forum on Microbial Threats and the IOM wish to express their warmest appreciation to the individuals and organizations who gave their valuable time to provide information and advice to the Forum through their participation in the planning and execution of this workshop. A full list of presenters, and their biographical information, may be found in Appendixes B and E, respectively.

The Forum gratefully acknowledges the contributions of the members of the planning committee:1 Roger Breeze (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory),

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1Institute of Medicine planning committees are solely responsible for organizing the workshop, identifying topics, and choosing speakers. The responsibility for the published workshop summary rests solely with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2012. Improving Food Safety Through a One Health Approach: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13423.
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Peter Daszak (EcoHealth Alliance), David Heymann (Health Protection Agency), James Hughes (Emory University), Gerald Keusch (Boston University), Rima Khabbaz (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), and Lonnie King (Ohio State University).

The Forum is also indebted to the IOM staff who tirelessly contributed throughout the planning and execution of the workshop and the production of this workshop summary report. On behalf of the Forum, we gratefully acknowledge these efforts led by Dr. Eileen Choffnes, director of the Forum; Dr. LeighAnne Olsen, program officer; Katherine McClure, senior program associate; Rebekah Hutton, research associate; and Pamela Bertelson, senior program assistant, for dedicating much effort and time to developing this workshop’s agenda and for their thoughtful and insightful approach and skill in planning for the workshop and in translating the workshop’s proceedings and discussion into this workshop summary report. We would also like to thank the following IOM staff and consultants for their valuable contributions to this activity: Daniel Bethea, Laura Harbold DeStefano, Alison Mack, Vilija Teel, and Sarah Ziegenhorn.

Finally, the Forum wishes to recognize the sponsors that supported this activity. Financial support for this project was provided by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: NIH, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, CDC, Food and Drug Administration, and the Fogarty International Center; Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences; U.S. Department of Defense, Department of the Army: Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System, Medical Research and Materiel Command, and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency; U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs; U.S. Department of Homeland Security; U.S. Agency for International Development; American Society for Microbiology; sanofi pasteur; Burroughs Wellcome Fund; GlaxoSmithKline; Infectious Diseases Society of America; and the Merck Company Foundation. The views presented in this workshop summary are those of the workshop participants and have been summarized by the rapporteurs. They do not necessarily reflect the views of the Forum on Microbial Threats, its sponsors, or the IOM.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2012. Improving Food Safety Through a One Health Approach: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13423.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2012. Improving Food Safety Through a One Health Approach: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13423.
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A3-10   Prevalence of Salmonella spp., STEC, and Protozoan Parasites in Environmental Waters

A3-11   Prevalence of Enteric Food-Borne Pathogens in Wildlife and Insects

A6-1      Major Differences to Risk Management of Infectious Diseases Versus Those Associated with Food Safety Issues

A12-1    Profiles of the Case-Patients in February 2008 Nipah Outbreaks, Manikgonj and Rajbari Districts, Bangladesh

A12-2    Laboratory Results of Case-Patients in February 2008, Manikgonj and Rajbari Districts, Bangladesh

A12-3    Nucleotide Differences Between Nipah Virus Isolated from Bangladesh (2004, 2008) and India (2007)

A12-4    Bivariate Analysis of Exposures for Nipah Virus Infection in February 2008, Manikgonj and Rahbari Districts, Bangladesh

A14-1    Major Pathogens Identified as Foodborne Since 1970

A14-2    Major Food-Animal Reservoirs for Human Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens

A14-3    Fifteen New Food Vehicles Identified from 2006 Through March 2012 in Foodborne Outbreaks Affecting the United States

FIGURES

WO-1    The well-traveled salad

WO-2    U.S. agricultural and seafood imports (millions of U.S. dollars)

WO-3    The convergence model

WO-4    Trends in global population: 1950-2015

WO-5    World meat consumption, 1983-2020

WO-6    Why diseases emerge

WO-7    Global supply chain complexity: Origin and contents of a generic “megaburger,”

WO-8    The global U.S. food supply: Many components

WO-2-1 Scanning electron microscope image shows the characteristic spiral, or corkscrew, shape of Campylobacter jejuni cells

WO-2-2 Clostridium perfringens bacterium. Colored TEM. Magnification: 43,000x

WO-2-3 This colorized scanning electron micrograph (SEM) depicts a number of Escherichia coli bacteria of the strain O157:H7 (Magnification: 6,836)

WO-2-4 False-color transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of a single flagellate bacterium, Listeria monocytogenes,

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2012. Improving Food Safety Through a One Health Approach: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13423.
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WO-2-5 Transmission electron micrograph of norovirus virions

WO-2-6 Negatively color-enhanced scanning electron micrograph showing Salmonella typhimurium (red) invading cultured human cells

WO-2-7 Colored transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of Toxoplasma gondii parasites, cause of toxoplasmosis

WO-9    The true burden of food-borne disease remains unknown

WO-10   Many different pathogens and toxins

WO-11   Foods implicated in outbreaks

WO-3-1 Aerial (~15 km2) photograph of ranch A showing overlapping circular buffer regions around feral swine trap 1 and trap 2 (San Benito crop year 2006; Image Trader, Flagstaff, AZ)

WO-3-2 Incidence of HUS

WO-3-3 Persons infected with the outbreak-associated strains of Listeria monocytogenes, by state

WO-3-4 Cruise ships provide ideal conditions for the amplification and spread of infectious diseases

WO-12   Fifteen years of progress in prevention: Trends in food-borne diseases, Foodnet, 1996-2010

WO-13   EHEC outbreak 2011: Investigation of the outbreak along the food chain

WO-14   Malaysia Nipah outbreak

WO-15   Date palm sap collection

WO-16   How often do bats visit date palm trees to drink their sap?

WO-17   Bacteria manipulate leaf stomata and get inside

WO-18   Grouping of (potential) food-borne viruses

WO-19   Pyramids and snowball effects

WO-20   DANMAP: Integrated surveillance of antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial usage in Denmark

WO-21   A schematic representation of how farm size can affect risk of avian influenza emergence

WO-22   Hotspots for food-borne pathogen emergence

WO-23   John Snow’s map of the 1854 cholera epidemic in London

WO-24   Human viruses have animal origins

WO-25   A staged strategy for pathogen discovery

WO-26   A One Health approach recognizes the interconnection between humans, plants, animals, water, and the environment as it relates to health problems

WO-27   The “host—parasite” continuum

WO-28   Schematic presentation of the collection, collation, analysis, and interpretation of surveillance data and the subsequent dissemination of information to all the major stakeholders in food safety

WO-29   Global-to-local food safety systems

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2012. Improving Food Safety Through a One Health Approach: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13423.
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A1-1      Total number of EHEC and HUS cases and associated deaths during the outbreak of EHEC O104:H4 in summer 2011 in Germany and comparison to an average year

A1-2      Epidemiological curve of EHEC and HUS cases and overview of epidemiological studies performed by the Robert Koch Institute for identification of sprouts as the vehicle of transmission

A1-3      Recipe-based restaurant cohort study of the Robert Koch Institute reveals risk for infection associated with the consumption of sprouts

A1-4      Trading network reveals linkage of 41 identified outbreak clusters

A1-5      Electron micrograph of EHEC O104:H4

A1-6      Putative origin of the EHEC outbreak strain as a combination of virulence traits derived from two different ancestors

A2-1      Proportion of EID events categorized by transmission mode

A2-2      Number of EID events per transmission mode classified by pathogen type

A2-3      Number of EID events per transmission mode categorized by zoonotic origin

A2-4      Proportion of drug-resistant and nonresistant EID events of zoonotic or nonzoonotic origin

A2-5      Association of food-borne EIDs with other drivers

A2-6      Relative risk of food-borne EID events, based on Jones et al. (2008)

A4-1      Economic impact examples

A4-2      Transfer model for antimicrobial resistance genes

A4-3      The intersection of enteric agents, animals and humans, and the environmental factors that influence the occurrence of zoonotic bacterial infections and the emergence of AMR

A4-4      Ceftiofur resistance in E. coli from retail chicken and S. Heidelberg from retail chicken and humans, CIPARS 2003-2010

A5-1      Global supply chain complexity. Movement of commodities

A5-2      Global supply chain complexity. Ingredient list

A5-3      Globalizing the cheeseburger

A6-1      When to act: Generalized invasion curve showing actions appropriate to each stage

A7-1      The number of infectious disease events that emerged from wildlife between 1940 and 2004 as published by Jones et al. (2008)

A7-2      All food-borne EID events from 1940-2004 (n = 100), broken down by zoonotic versus nonzoonotic origin

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2012. Improving Food Safety Through a One Health Approach: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13423.
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A7-3      All food-borne emerging infectious diseases from 1940 to 2004 (n = 100) with their respective “drivers of emergence” as published by Jones et al. (2008)

A7-4      Routes of contamination resulting in food-borne illness linked to wildlife

A9-1      Epidemiology of food- and water-borne viruses, showing complexity of transmission and possible sources of infection

A9-2      Steps required and common challenges for establishing proof of food-borne (viral) infection

A10-1    Growth of the viral sequence database mapped to seminal discoveries and improvements in sequencing technology

A10-2    Staged strategy for pathogen discovery and link to causation. In the molecular era of pathogen discovery, culture and molecular methods are pursued in parallel until an agent is detected, isolated, and characterized

A11-1    Range of Pteropus bats based on RM Nowak

A11-2    Chain of person to person transmission in Nipah outbreak, Faridpur, Bangladesh, 2004

A12-1    Bangladesh map showing location of Nipah surveillance sites, previous Nipah outbreak areas, and February 2008 outbreak areas of Bangladesh

A12-2    Date of illness onset from both clusters occurred over 6 days during February 2008, Manikgonj and Rajbari Districts, Bangladesh

A13-1    Roadmap for the components of global food safety

A13-2    Cargill food safety policy

A13-3    Corporate food safety and regulatory affairs

A13-4    Cargill environmental monitoring decision tree

A14-1    The food production chain from the farm to the table

A14-2    Distribution of illnesses by food type in 1,565 foodborne outbreaks caused by a single food type and reported to CDC’s National Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System, 2003-2008

A14-3    Relative rates of laboratory-confirmed infections with Campylobacter, Shiga toxin—producing Escherichia coli O157, Listeria, Salmonella, and Vibrio, compared with 1996-1998 rates, by year, in the United States during 1996-2010, based on data from the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet)

Page xxii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2012. Improving Food Safety Through a One Health Approach: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13423.
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A14-4    Number of reported cases of salmonellosis, by serotype, England and Wales, 2000-2010

A15-1    The epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance at the human—animal interface is invariably complex

A15-2    Flow of samples, isolates, and data in the Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance and Antimicrobial Usage Monitoring Programme—DANMAP

A15-3    Comparison of the sales of veterinary antibacterial agents between 10 European countries (mg per kg meat produced)

A15-4    The total consumption of fluoroquinolones in Danish food-animal production, following voluntary and regulatory efforts to reduce the amounts used in 1999 and 2002, respectively

A15-5    Resistance (%) to erythromycin among Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis from swine and the consumption of macrolides in swine, Denmark

A15-6    Resistance (%) to vancomycin in Enterococcus faecium from broilers and the consumption of avoparcin, Denmark

A15-7    Prevalence of ceftiofur resistance (moving average of the current quarter and the previous two quarters) among retail chicken Escherichia coli, and retail chicken and human clinical Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg isolates during 2003-2008 in Québec

A15-8    Sales of antimicrobials for therapeutic use in farmed fish in Norway versus produced biomass

A16-1    Illustration of the five stages through which pathogens of animals evolve to cause diseases confined to humans

BOXES

WO-1    Wicked Problems

WO-2    The Seven Most Common Food-Borne Pathogens in the United States

WO-3    Recent Food-borne Outbreaks: The Changing Nature of the “Threat,”

WO-4    Molecular Methods for Pathogen Discovery

A16-1    Five Stages Leading to Endemic Human Diseases

A16-2    Transitions Between Stages

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