National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Determining Core Capabilities in Chemical and Biological Defense Science and Technology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13516.
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Determining Core Capabilities in
Chemical and Biological Defense
Science and Technology

Committee on Determining Core Capabilities in
Chemical and Biological Defense Research and Development

Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology
Board on Life Sciences

Division on Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
                    OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Determining Core Capabilities in Chemical and Biological Defense Science and Technology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13516.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS    500 Fifth Street, NW    Washington, DC 20001

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study was supported by Contract No. HQ0034-10-D-0003, TO #5 between the National Academy of Sciences and US Department of Defense. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-26535-5
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-26535-5

Additional copies of this report are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu/.

Copyright 2012 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Determining Core Capabilities in Chemical and Biological Defense Science and Technology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13516.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

www.national-academies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Determining Core Capabilities in Chemical and Biological Defense Science and Technology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13516.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Determining Core Capabilities in Chemical and Biological Defense Science and Technology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13516.
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COMMITTEE ON DETERMINING CORE CAPABILITIES IN CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL DEFENSE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

MIRIAM E. JOHN (Chair), Private Consultant; Vice President, Emeritus, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA

DAVID R. FRANZ, Former Commander, USAMRIID, Frederick, MD

JILL M. HRUBY, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM

ANNA JOHNSON-WINEGAR, retired, Office of the Secretary of Defense

CHARLES E. KOLB, Aerodyne Research Inc., Billerica, MA

C. RICK LYONS, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO

JON MOGFORD, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX

RANDALL S. MURCH, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Arlington, VA

DONALD PROSNITZ, Private Consultant, Livermore, CA

TOM SLEZAK, E.O. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA

HENRY H. WILLIS, RAND Corporation, Pittsburgh, PA

PATRICK SCANNON, (Consultant) XOMA, Berkeley, CA

GEORGE M. WHITESIDES, (Consultant) Harvard University, Cambridge, MA

National Research Council Staff

Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology

DOROTHY ZOLANDZ, Director

DOUGLAS FRIEDMAN, Program Officer

KATHRYN HUGHES, Senior Program Officer

AMANDA CLINE, Administrative Assistant

SHEENA SIDDIQUI, Senior Program Associate

RACHEL YANCEY, Senior Program Assistant

Board on Life Sciences

FRAN SHARPLES, Director

INDIA HOOK-BARNARD, Senior Program Officer

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Determining Core Capabilities in Chemical and Biological Defense Science and Technology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13516.
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BOARD ON CHEMICAL SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY

PABLO DEBENEDETTI (Co-Chair), Princeton University, Princeton, NJ

C. DALE POULTER (Co-Chair), University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT

ZHENAN BAO, Stanford University, Stanford, CA

ROBERT BERGMAN, University of California, Berkeley, CA

HENRY BRYNDZA, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Wilmington, DE

EMILY CARTER, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ

DAVID CHRISTIANSON, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA

MARY JANE HAGENSON, Chevron Phillips Chemical Company, LLC, The Woodlands, TX

CAROL J. HENRY, The George Washington University, Washington, DC

JILL HRUBY, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM

MICHAEL C. KERBY, ExxonMobil Chemical Company, Houston, TX

CHARLES E. KOLB, Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA

JOSEF MICHL, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO

SANDER G. MILLS, Merck, Sharp, & Dohme Corporation, Whitehouse Station, NJ

DAVID MORSE, Corning Incorporated, Corning, NY

ROBERT E. ROBERTS, Institute for Defense Analyses, Alexandria, VA

DARLENE J. S. SOLOMON, Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, CA

JEAN TOM, Bristol-Myers Squibb, West Windsor, NJ

DAVID WALT, Tufts University, Medford, MA

National Research Council Staff

DOROTHY ZOLANDZ, Director

TINA MASCIANGOLI, Senior Program Officer

DOUGLAS FRIEDMAN, Program Officer

KATHRYN HUGHES, Senior Program Officer

AMANDA CLINE, Administrative Assistant

SHEENA SIDDIQUI, Senior Program Associate

RACHEL YANCEY, Senior Program Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Determining Core Capabilities in Chemical and Biological Defense Science and Technology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13516.
×

BOARD ON LIFE SCIENCES

KEITH R. YAMAMOTO (Chair), University of California, San Francisco, CA

BONNIE L. BASSLER, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ

VICKI L. CHANDLER, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, Palo Alto, CA

SEAN EDDY, HHMI Janelia Farm Research Campus, Ashburn, VA

SARAH C.R. ELGIN, Washington University, St. Louis, MO

MARK FITZSIMMONS, John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, Chicago, IL

DAVID R. FRANZ, Former Commander, USAMRIID, Frederick, MD

LOUIS J. GROSS, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN

RICHARD A. JOHNSON, Arnold & Porter, LLC, Washington, DC

CATO T. LAURENCIN, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT

ALAN I. LESHNER, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC

BERNARD LO, University of California, San Francisco, CA

KAREN E. NELSON, J. Craig Venter Institute, Rockville, MD

ROBERT M. NEREM, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA

MURIEL E. POSTON, Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, NY

ALISON G. POWER, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY

MARGARET RILEY, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA

BRUCE W. STILLMAN, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY

CYNTHIA WOLBERGER, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD

MARY WOOLLEY, Research!America, Alexandria, VA

National Research Council Staff

FRANCES E. SHARPLES, Director

JO L. HUSBANDS, Scholar/Senior Project Director

JAY B. LABOV, Senior Scientist/Program Director for Biology Education

KATHERINE W. BOWMAN, Senior Program Officer

INDIA HOOK-BARNARD, Senior Program Officer

MARILEE K. SHELTON-DAVENPORT, Senior Program Officer

KEEGAN SAWYER, Program Officer

BETHLEHEM M. BANJAW, Financial Associate

ORIN E. LUKE, Senior Program Assistant

CARL G. ANDERSON, Program Associate

SAYYEDA AYESHA AHMED, Senior Program Assistant

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Determining Core Capabilities in Chemical and Biological Defense Science and Technology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13516.
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Acknowledgment of Reviewers

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process.

We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

R. Stephen Berry, University of Chicago

W. Peter Cherry, Independent Consultant

Joseph M. DeSimone, University of North Carolina

Gerald L. Epstein, US Department of Homeland Security

Thomas G. Ksiazek, University of Texas Medical Branch

Stephen S. Morse, Columbia University

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Determining Core Capabilities in Chemical and Biological Defense Science and Technology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13516.
×

Ed Przybylowicz, Retired, Eastman Kodak Company, and Robert Frosch, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Determining Core Capabilities in Chemical and Biological Defense Science and Technology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13516.
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Acronyms

AFRL

US Air Force Research Laboratory

ARIEM

US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine

ASARDA

Assistant Secretary of the Army for Research, Development, and Acquisition

ASD(NCB)

Assistant Secretary of Defense for Nuclear, Chemical, and Biological Defense Programs

AT&L

Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics

 

 

BARDA

Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority

BSL

Biological Safety Level

BW

Biological Weapon

 

 

CB

Chemical and Biological

CBD

Chemical and Biological Defense

CBDP

Chemical and Biological Defense Program

CBRN

Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear

CBW

Chemical and Biological Weapons

CDC

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

COCOM

US Combatant Command

CONOPS

Concept of Operations

CRO

Contract Research Organizations

CRP

Critical Reagents Program

CTR

Cooperative Threat Reduction

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Determining Core Capabilities in Chemical and Biological Defense Science and Technology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13516.
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DARPA

Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

DASD(CBD)

Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Chemical and Biological Defense

DHS

Department of Homeland Security

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic Acid

DoD

US Department of Defense

DOE

US Department of Energy

DPG

US Army Dugway Proving Ground

DTRA

Defense Threat Reduction Agency

 

 

ECBC

Edgewood Chemical Biological Center

EFP

Explosively Formed Projectile

 

 

FDA

US Food and Drug Administration

FFRDC

Federally Funded Research and Development Center

FSU

Former Soviet Union

 

 

GEIS

Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System

GPHIN

Global Public Health Intelligence Network

GLP

Good Laboratory Practices

GMP

Good Manufacturing Practices

 

 

HHS

Department of Health and Human Services

 

 

IC

Intelligence Community

IED

Improvised Explosive Device

IND

Investigational New Drug

IR&D

Internal Research and Development

ISR

Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance

 

 

JCAD

Joint Chemical Agent Detector

JCS

Joint Chiefs of Staff

JPEO-CBD

Joint Program Executive Office for Chemical and Biological Defense

JPL

Joint Priority List

JPM

Joint Program Manager

JPO

Joint Program Office

JRO-CBRND

Joint Requirements Office for Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Defense

JSIG

Joint Service Integration Group

JSMG

Joint Service Materiel Group

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Determining Core Capabilities in Chemical and Biological Defense Science and Technology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13516.
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JSTO-CBD

Joint Science and Technology Office for Chemical and Biological Defense

 

 

LANL

Los Alamos National Laboratory

LLNL

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

 

 

MCMI

Medical Countermeasures Initiative

MDD

Material Development Decision

MRMC

US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command

 

 

NAS

National Academy of Sciences

NBACC

National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center

NCAR

National Center for Atmospheric Research

NCI

National Cancer Institute

NIH

National Institutes of Health

NIST

National Institute of Standards and Technology

NRC

National Research Council

NSRDEC

US Army Natick Soldier Research, Development, and Engineering Center

NSWC

Naval Surface Warfare Center

NTA

Non-Traditional Agent

 

 

OASD(NCB/CB)

Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Nuclear, Chemical, and Biological Defense Programs/Chemical and Biological Defense

OGA

Other Government Agency

OSD

Office of the Secretary of Defense

 

 

PET

Positron Emission Tomography

PI

Principal Investigator

PNNL

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

POM

Program Objective Memorandum

 

 

R&D

Research and Development

R-D-A

Research-Development-Acquisition

RDT&E

Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation

RNA

Ribonucleic Acid

RSDL

Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion

 

 

S&T

Science and Technology

SNL

Sandia National Laboratory

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Determining Core Capabilities in Chemical and Biological Defense Science and Technology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13516.
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T&E

Test and Evaluation

TMT

Transformational Medical Technologies

TMTI

Transformational Medical Technologies Initiative

 

 

US

United States

USAMRICD

US Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense

USAMRIID

US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases

USD

Under Secretary of Defense

USDA

US Department of Agriculture

USG

United States Government

USSOCOM

US Special Operations Command

UTMB

University of Texas Medical Branch

 

 

WDTC

West Desert Test Center

WRAIR

Walter Reed Army Institute of Research

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Determining Core Capabilities in Chemical and Biological Defense Science and Technology Get This Book
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The goal of the U.S. Department of Defense's (DoD's) Chemical and Biological Defense Program (CBDP) is to provide support and world-class capabilities enabling he U.S. Armed Forces to fight and win decisively in chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) environments. To accomplish this objective, the CBDP must maintain robust science and technology capabilities to support the research, development, testing, and evaluation required for the creation and validation of the products the program supplies.

The threat from chemical and biological attack evolves due to the changing nature of conflict and rapid advances in science and technology (S&T), so the core S&T capabilities that must be maintained by the CBDP must also continue to evolve. In order to address the challenges facing the DoD, the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense (DASD) for Chemical and Biological Defense (CBD) asked the National Research Council (NRC) to conduct a study to identify the core capabilities in S&T that must be supported by the program.

The NRC Committee on Determining Core Capabilities in Chemical and Biological Defense Research and Development examined the capabilities necessary for the chemical and biological defense S&T program in the context of the threat and of the program's stated mission and priorities. Determining Core Capabilities in Chemical and Biological Defense Science and Technology contains the committee's findings and recommendations. It is intended to assist the DASD CBD in determining the best strategy for acquiring, developing, and/or maintaining the needed capabilities.

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