National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2013. The Human Microbiome, Diet, and Health: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13522.
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Workshop Summary

The Human Microbiome,
Diet, and Health

Leslie Pray, Laura Pillsbury, and Emily Tomayko, Rapporteurs
Food Forum
Food and Nutrition Board

INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE
       OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2013. The Human Microbiome, Diet, and Health: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13522.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS      500 Fifth Street, NW      Washington, DC 20001

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.

This study was supported by Contract Nos. AG-3A94-P-11-0081, FS-11-DC-01, and CNPP/IOM-11-01 (U.S. Department of Agriculture), N01-OD-4-2139 (National Institutes of Health), and HHSF22301020T (Food and Drug Administration) with the National Academy of Sciences. Additional support came from Abbott Laboratories, Cargill, Coca-Cola Company, ConAgra Foods, General Mills, Kellogg Company, Kraft Foods, Mars, McDonald’s, Mead Johnson Nutrition, Monsanto, Nestlé Nutrition, and PepsiCo. The views expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-26585-0
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-26585-1

Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu.

For more information about the Institute of Medicine, visit the IOM home page at: www.iom.edu.

Copyright 2013 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

The serpent has been a symbol of long life, healing, and knowledge among almost all cultures and religions since the beginning of recorded history. The serpent adopted as a logotype by the Institute of Medicine is a relief carving from ancient Greece, now held by the Staatliche Museen in Berlin.

Cover credit: Image designed by Casey Weeks.

Suggested citation: IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2013. The human microbiome, diet, and health: Workshop summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2013. The Human Microbiome, Diet, and Health: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13522.
×

“Knowing is not enough; we must apply.
Willing is not enough; we must do.”

—Goethe

image

INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE
       OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advising the Nation. Improving Health.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2013. The Human Microbiome, Diet, and Health: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13522.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

www.national-academies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2013. The Human Microbiome, Diet, and Health: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13522.
×

PLANNING COMMITTEE ON THE HUMAN MICROBIOME, DIET, AND HEALTH1

GORDON L. JENSEN (Chair), Pennsylvania State University, University Park

JENNIFER BRULC, General Mills, Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota

SUSAN CROCKETT, General Mills, Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota

CINDY DAVIS, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland

ERIC DECKER, University of Massachusetts Amherst

MARGARET LEAHY, The Coca-Cola Company, Atlanta, Georgia

SARAH ROLLER, Kelley Drye & Warren LLP, Washington, DC

PAMELA STARKE-REED, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland

IOM Staff

LAURA PILLSBURY, Study Director

GERALDINE KENNEDO, Administrative Assistant

LINDA D. MEYERS, Senior Director, Food and Nutrition Board

__________

1 Institute of Medicine planning committees are solely responsible for organizing the workshop, identifying topics, and choosing speakers. The responsibility for the published workshop summary rests with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2013. The Human Microbiome, Diet, and Health: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13522.
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FOOD FORUM1

FRANK BUSTA (Chair), University of Minnesota, St. Paul

MARK ANDON, ConAgra Foods, Inc., Omaha, Nebraska

PAUL M. COATES, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland

DAVID B. COCKRAM, Abbott Laboratories, Columbus, Ohio

SUSAN J. CROCKETT, General Mills, Minneapolis, Minnesota

ERIC A. DECKER, University of Massachusetts Amherst

CAROLINE SMITH DEWAAL, Center for Science in the Public Interest, Washington, DC

SAMUEL GODEFROY, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario

DAVID GOLDMAN, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC

CINDY GOODY, McDonald’s Corporation, Oak Brook, Illinois

SONYA A. GRIER, American University, Washington, DC

BRENDA HALBROOK, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Alexandria, Virginia

JERRY HJELLE, Monsanto Company, St. Louis, Missouri

KATE J. HOUSTON, Cargill Incorporated, Washington, DC

VAN S. HUBBARD, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland

LEE-ANN JAYKUS, North Carolina State University, Raleigh

GORDON L. JENSEN, Pennsylvania State University, University Park

RENÉE S. JOHNSON, Congressional Research Service, Washington, DC

WENDY L. JOHNSON-ASKEW, Nestlé Nutrition, Florham Park, New Jersey

GENE KAHN, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, Washington

CAROL KELLAR, Kraft Foods, Glenview, Illinois

MICHAEL M. LANDA, Food and Drug Administration, College Park, Maryland

MARGARET LEAHY, The Coca-Cola Company, Atlanta, Georgia

ERIK D. OLSON, Pew Health Group, Washington, DC

ROBERT C. POST, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Alexandria, Virginia

STEVEN W. RIZK, Mars Chocolate North America, Hackettstown, New Jersey

SARAH ROLLER, Kelley Drye & Warren LLP, Washington, DC

SYLVIA B. ROWE, SR Strategy, LLC, Washington, DC

PETER VAN DAEL, Mead Johnson Nutrition, Evansville, Indiana

PARKE E. WILDE, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts

DEREK YACH, PepsiCo, Purchase, New York

__________________________

1 Institute of Medicine forums and roundtables do not issue, review, or approve individual documents. The responsibility for the published workshop summary rests with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2013. The Human Microbiome, Diet, and Health: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13522.
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Food Forum Staff

LAURA PILLSBURY, Director

EMILY TOMAYKO, Mirzayan Science & Technology Policy Fellow (from August 2012)

GERALDINE KENNEDO, Administrative Assistant

ANTON L. BANDY, Financial Associate

LINDA D. MEYERS, Senior Director, Food and Nutrition Board

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2013. The Human Microbiome, Diet, and Health: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13522.
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Reviewers

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

Cindy Davis, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland

Robert W. Hutkins, University of Nebraska, Lincoln

Artem Khlebnikov, The Dannon Company, Inc., White Plains, New York

David Mills, University of California, Davis

Connie M. Weaver, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they did not see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Melvin Worth. Appointed by the Institute of Medicine, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authors and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2013. The Human Microbiome, Diet, and Health: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13522.
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The Food Forum convened a public workshop on February 22-23, 2012, to explore current and emerging knowledge of the human microbiome, its role in human health, its interaction with the diet, and the translation of new research findings into tools and products that improve the nutritional quality of the food supply. The Human Microbiome, Diet, and Health: Workshop Summary summarizes the presentations and discussions that took place during the workshop. Over the two day workshop, several themes covered included:

  1. The microbiome is integral to human physiology, health, and disease.
  2. The microbiome is arguably the most intimate connection that humans have with their external environment, mostly through diet.
  3. Given the emerging nature of research on the microbiome, some important methodology issues might still have to be resolved with respect to undersampling and a lack of causal and mechanistic studies.
  4. Dietary interventions intended to have an impact on host biology via their impact on the microbiome are being developed, and the market for these products is seeing tremendous success. However, the current regulatory framework poses challenges to industry interest and investment.
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