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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2004. Identification of Research Needs Related to Highway Runoff Management. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13791.
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T R A N S P O R T A T I O N R E S E A R C H B O A R D WASHINGTON, D.C. 2004 www.TRB.org NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP REPORT 521 Research Sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in Cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration SUBJECT AREAS Planning and Administration • Energy and Environment • Pavement Design, Management, and Performance Highway and Facility Design • Maintenance • Bridges, Other Structures, and Hydraulics and Hydrology Identification of Research Needs Related to Highway Runoff Management MARIE VENNER Venner Consulting Littleton, CO AND MARC LEISENRING DAN PANKANI ERIC STRECKER GeoSyntec Consultants Portland, OR

NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective approach to the solution of many problems facing highway administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of the Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of Transportation. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies was requested by the Association to administer the research program because of the Board’s recognized objectivity and understanding of modern research practices. The Board is uniquely suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee structure from which authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; it possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, state and local governmental agencies, universities, and industry; its relationship to the National Research Council is an insurance of objectivity; it maintains a full-time research correlation staff of specialists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of research directly to those who are in a position to use them. The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified by chief administrators of the highway and transportation departments and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific areas of research needs to be included in the program are proposed to the National Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies are selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. The needs for highway research are many, and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or duplicate other highway research programs. Note: The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, the Federal Highway Administration, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, and the individual states participating in the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of this report. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America NCHRP REPORT 521 Project B25-20(2) FY’03 ISSN 0077-5614 ISBN 0-309-08815-1 Library of Congress Control Number 2004114422 © 2004 Transportation Research Board Price $25.00 NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the Governing Board’s judgment that the program concerned is of national importance and appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources of the National Research Council. The members of the technical committee selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and, while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical committee, they are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, or the Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical committee according to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council.

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished schol- ars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and techni- cal matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Acad- emy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achieve- ments of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Acad- emy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both the Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is a division of the National Research Council, which serves the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering. The Board’s mission is to promote innovation and progress in transportation through research. In an objective and interdisciplinary setting, the Board facilitates the sharing of information on transportation practice and policy by researchers and practitioners; stimulates research and offers research management services that promote technical excellence; provides expert advice on transportation policy and programs; and disseminates research results broadly and encourages their implementation. The Board’s varied activities annually engage more than 5,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF FOR NCHRP REPORT 521 ROBERT J. REILLY, Director, Cooperative Research Programs CRAWFORD F. JENCKS, Manager, NCHRP CHRISTOPHER J. HEDGES, Senior Program Officer EILEEN P. DELANEY, Director of Publications HILARY FREER, Editor NCHRP PROJECT B25-20(2) PANEL Field of Transportation Planning—Area of Impact Analysis HAROLD G. HUNT, California DOT (Chair) EDWIN F. DRABKOWSKI, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EDWIN F. HERRICKS, University of Illinois—Urbana-Champaign EDWARD MOLASH, Washington State DOT VINCENT J. PALUMBO, Rhode Island DOT RICHARD E. PRICE, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers MARK E. SENGENBERGER, Adirondack Park Agency, Ray Brook, NY WILLIAM J. SNODGRASS, City of Toronto CARLOS H. SWONKE, Turner, Collie, and Braden, Inc., Austin, TX RAJABABU VEERAMACHANENI, Maryland State Highway Administration FRED G. BANK, FHWA Liaison Representative KIMBERLY FISHER, TRB Liaison Representative AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under NCHRP Proj- ect 25-20(02) by GeoSyntec Consultants of Portland, Oregon, and Venner Consulting of Littleton, Colorado. Marie Venner, Venner Consulting, and Eric Strecker, GeoSyntec Consultants, were the prin- cipal investigators. Marc Leisenring and Dan Pankani of GeoSyntec also authored the report.

This report presents an analysis of research needs in the area of highway water runoff management and control. Research directors and water-quality professionals from state departments of transportation (DOTs) participated in a survey to identify pressing needs related to the impacts and control of stormwater runoff. The survey results were supplemented with an extensive literature review and analysis by the research team. This report will be of great value in formulating high-priority research efforts at the national, state, and local levels. The effect of polluted runoff on water quality is an important concern for federal, state, and local agencies with a stake in the planning, design, construction, and main- tenance of transportation facilities. The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination Sys- tem (NPDES) regulations (40 CFR 122 & 123) require the management of sources and impacts of contamination from runoff on municipal stormwater systems. In addition, highway runoff management techniques must be consistent with the objectives of non- point source control programs under Section 319 of the Clean Water Act and state coastal nonpoint pollution control plans developed under Section 6217 of the Coastal Zone Act Reauthorization Amendments. Therefore, water-quality information and data are needed to manage runoff and comply with the NPDES and other regulations. At its meeting in March 1998, the AASHTO Standing Committee on Research (SCOR) met to review and select projects for the FY1999 NCHRP program. SCOR noted that there were 10 different problem statements the dealt with the impacts and management of highway runoff. SCOR directed NCHRP to convene a panel of experts to investigate the existing state of practice; identify research issues, gaps and needs; undertake research on high-priority topics; and recommend projects for future funding. The first effort initiated by the panel was Project 25-20, which produced a report entitled “Management of Runoff from Surface Transportation Facilities: Synthesis and Research Plan,” from GKY and Associates, Inc., published in March 2001 as NCHRP Web Document 37. The report was accompanied by the “Water Quality Knowledge Database,” on CD-ROM. Based in part on the recommendations of the GKY study, the panel then initiated Project 25-20(01) “Evaluation of Best Management Practices for Highway Runoff Control.” This project was contracted to Oregon State University and is scheduled for completion in the spring of 2004. Under NCHRP Project 25-20(02), “Identification of Research Needs Related to Highway Runoff Management,” a research team led by Marie Venner and Eric Strecker undertook this follow-up effort to supplement and update the GKY effort with a review of the most current research findings. The report summarizes the significant stormwa- ter management practices and research efforts, and it identifies the most pressing gaps FOREWORD By Christopher J. Hedges Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

and needs in the current state of knowledge in over 30 subject areas. The team devel- oped full research project statements for the topics considered to be of highest priority. This report will be of great interest in pursuing research to improve the ability of state DOTs and other road agencies to implement an effective stormwater runoff man- agement program.

1 SUMMARY 40 CHAPTER 1 Introduction 1.1. Regulatory Environment for State Departments of Transportation, 40 1.2. Summary of GKY Study and Gaps, 41 1.3. Goals and Objectives of NCHRP 25-20(02), 43 1.4. Research Methodology, 43 48 CHAPTER 2 Department of Transportation Research Preferences 2.1. Top-Ranked Areas of Needed Research: Stormwater Control Facilities and Programs, 48 2.2. Watershed Approaches, 50 2.3. Runoff Characterization, 51 2.4. Impacts to Receiving Waters, 51 2.5. Areas for Further Research Identified by Departments of Transportation, 52 57 CHAPTER 3 Review of Published Literature and Potential Research Needs 3.1. Brief Review of Recent Major Syntheses of Highway Runoff/Urban Stormwater Quality Research, 57 3.2. Evaluation of Stormwater Control Facilities and Programs, 63 3.3. Watershed-Based Approaches, 94 3.4. Highway Runoff Characterization and Assessment, 98 3.5. Receiving Waters Impact Assessment, 122 136 CHAPTER 4 Summary of Identified Research Gaps and Needs 143 MASTER BIBLIOGRAPHY A-1 APPENDIX A State Department of Transportation Survey and Ranking of Research Preferences B-1 APPENDIX B Brief Listing of Guidelines and Protocols for Highway Runoff Characterization and Management CONTENTS

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TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Report 521: Identification of Research Needs Related to Highway Runoff Management summarizes significant stormwater management practices and research efforts, and it identifies the most pressing gaps and needs in the current state of knowledge in over more than 30 subject areas. The report includes full research project statements for the topics considered to be of highest priority.

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