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Integrating Airport Information Systems (2009)

Chapter: Chapter 4 - Airport Information

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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Airport information is collected, used, and maintained by the various functional areas of an airport. To provide useful business information to management through integration, the following basics for the airport should be identified and understood: • What information needs to be integrated, • From which existing system, and • Where in the organization the system and data reside. Although airport organizational structures differ, the broad-based functional areas for which business-critical information has been identified are Finance/Administration, Operations, Main- tenance, Engineering, Security, and Public Relations. Airport organizational structures are based on the needs of the particular airport; functional areas and divisions can be combined or sepa- rated in different ways. The functional areas and the divisions described are representative of a typical airport; these samples are meant to illustrate an airport organization within the context of this Handbook. Each functional area and division of an airport organization requires a different set of business- critical information and key data elements. Some values are important to all division managers within an airport, including personnel statistics, budget to actual, scheduled to actual, and deliv- erables met. Two sets of tables are associated with this Handbook—one set of four-column tables (Tables 4-1 through 4-18) and one set of nine-column tables. Samples of the condensed, four- column tables are presented in the appropriate functional area later in this chapter. The larger nine-column tables are attached to the Summary of the Final Report and are incorporated here by reference (http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=10154). Figure 4-1 presents a limited snapshot of a nine-column table for illustrative purposes. Finance and Administration Overview Finance and Administration include the following divisions: Accounting, Administration, Human Resources, IT/Telecom, and Properties. Airports that accept Federal Airport Improvement Program (AIP) grants are required to be as self-sufficient as possible, and most airports are government enterprises that must generate all or most funds necessary to operate and maintain the airport. All expenditures made and rev- enues received from any source must be entered into the financial management/cost accounting records, which are usually maintained by the Accounting division. Financial information is required to calculate annual budgets, airline rates and charges, necessary rate adjustments, and the like and to determine how well the airport is meeting its financial obligations. 34 C H A P T E R 4 Airport Information

Airport Information 35 Figure 4-1. Sample finance/administration accounting division. This financial information is tracked by Accounting regularly. Revenues are compared with the amounts due to the airport under use and lease agreements and concession/tenant leases managed by Properties. Expenditures are tracked against approved budgets. Reserve fund levels, accounts receivable, and planned capital programs are also tracked. Airlines might report traffic statistics, such as the number of enplaned passengers, originating and deplaning passengers, and connecting passengers, to the Accounting division. Often, airlines use a gate management system to track this gate usage, and the information is forwarded to air- port Accounting. The Operations functional area might track aircraft operations (landings and takeoffs), gate usage, and international activity, and transmit this information to Accounting to bill the rates and charges and to make adjustments as necessary. Frequently, such activity is self- reported by the airlines. Properties might track concession revenues (usually self-reported) and transmit such data to the Accounting division. The Administration division can include a purchasing group that tracks service contract expi- ration dates, which the contract administration group uses to plan for new contract issues, including terms and anticipated budget impacts. Insurance information (such as accident rates, claims, and injury trends) are often tracked and used to ensure safety and reduce financial impacts. Although legal can be a separate functional area at larger airports, legal services are fre- quently provided by the municipality or considered part of the function of Administration. Many mid-sized and smaller airports contract out their legal services, and the contracts are managed by the CEO, Finance, or Administration. Senior management generally wants infor- mation on the status of litigation, settlement discussions, pending contracts, and the associ- ated budget impacts. The Human Resources division tracks personnel data, such as number of employees, vacant positions, overtime hours, and salary changes, and transmits the data to Accounting for payroll

36 Integrating Airport Information Systems and budget use. Unless the timekeeping system is integrated with the payroll system, this infor- mation is tracked manually. HR systems can be used to provide additional information, such as the number of vacant positions and turnover rates. Frequently, this information, as well as griev- ance information and significant personnel actions, are manually tracked and reviewed regularly by senior management. The Human Resources division tracks DOT and FAA training require- ments. Drug testing results of safety-sensitive employees and those with commercial drivers licenses are recorded, tracked, and transmitted to the appropriate senior manager for any required follow-up or disciplinary action. Annual budgeting for personnel costs can result from manual entries or might include downloaded data from the HR systems. Data regarding use and performance of IT and telecom resources is tracked, usually by auto- matic reports generated by those systems. The status of efforts by unauthorized persons to access secure or confidential information is increasingly monitored by airport staff and transmitted to senior management. The Properties division manages and tracks concessions and tenant lease information and transmits the lease and revenue data necessary for billing and financial reporting to Accounting. Some airports have lease management systems that track the data, but frequently, the data are transferred manually for billing purposes. Commercial development may need land and infra- structure information from Engineering; such information is available from a computer-aided design (CAD) system and from sophisticated financial return-on-investment analyses using data from the Accounting division. Throughout the Finance and Administration functional area, information is entered into one system and is frequently re-entered in another system. Unless these systems can integrate or feed data to the airport’s overall Financial Management System, much of this critical information must be manually re-entered by airport personnel. Self-reported data increases the chance of error or underreporting and requires additional auditing. Delays in receiving critical informa- tion, such as traffic statistics or accounts receivable data, increases the risk of financial loss— especially in the event of a tenant airline’s bankruptcy. It is essential that accurate statistics be kept for mail and cargo shipping, especially when air- field projects are federally funded. Accurate and timely reporting of cargo and mail metric ton- nage is important to an airport in many ways. Airports that are heavily engaged in cargo and mail handling have a financial stake in accurate reporting because the AIP criteria allows for federal funding. Additionally, cargo movement statistics serve as valuable data points for future devel- opment of cargo facilities. Finally, this type of data is important when presenting a marketing plan to potential new domestic and international airlines. Although RFID technology has become quite common in the past few years, it is just now emerging as an important tool for software applications in airports. Cargo, in particu- lar, could use RFID technology to collect data important to an airport, such as aircraft and cargo weight, aircraft destination, and content of the cargo and its origin. As the FAA and the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) continue to place greater security responsibilities on airports, these applications and integrated technologies will facilitate the secure movement of cargo and mail. Significant Metrics from Finance and Administration Business-Critical Information Metrics developed from business-critical financial information are frequently used by airport management to gauge the financial health of the airport. Typical calculations that use various airport financial and traffic data include cost per enplanement, cost per passenger, cost per

Airport Information 37 employee, and cost per flight operation. Similarly, actual revenues generated by airline sources, such as landing fees, ground rents, and terminal rents, are compared with planned revenues to provide important information for proactive decision-making by airport management. When calculated as a percentage of total revenues received and shown on a per-activity basis, non- airline revenues received from concessions and non-airline tenants can provide management early feedback. Traffic statistics are critical information that affect the airport’s financial status and facilities planning and are essential to senior management. Trust indentures or bond ordi- nances usually require management to calculate specific formulas to ensure that the revenues being generated are sufficient to cover all obligations including debt service. For many airport managers, return-on-investment metrics are helpful for master planning and commercial devel- opment issues. Customer service metrics, such as the number of complaints per airport process, security wait times, and international arrival delays, can drive the allocation of scarce resources to the areas of greatest need. All these metrics require accurate and timely access to the Finance and Administration business- critical information presented in Tables 4-1 through 4-5. Operations Overview The Operations functional area includes the following divisions: Airside, Landside, Ground Transportation, and Parking. Often security badge processing and law enforcement fall within the Operations functional area. These Operations divisions are line functions of the airport, which frequently represent Operations senior management when they are not present. Information technology used by these divisions normally involves data collection and display, rather than com- putation. Operations will normally have direct access to FAA and National Oceanic and Atmo- spheric Administration (NOAA) databases, as well as terminal FIDS, to track changing conditions on the airfield. Some airports have successfully instituted telemetric systems where actual obser- vations of airfield conditions are relayed to key airport personnel using wireless technology. The Airside division of Operations is responsible for ensuring that all aspects of the aircraft movement area remain in an airworthy and safe condition. This includes the obligation to main- tain the airport’s certification under Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 139. To obtain a certificate, an airport operator must agree to certain operational and safety standards and provide for such things as firefighting and rescue equipment. The Airside Duty Officer coordinates the joint responses of police, fire, medical, and airfield emergency operations and understands that safety is the most important responsibility. The Airside division also delivers reports to the appropriate agencies, files reports in the form of a NOTAM, maintains the facility in a safe condition, and closes any unsafe areas. This division also ensures that those permitted access to the movement areas of the airport are properly trained and equipped and understand their responsibilities. This division is also responsible for several activities, training exercises, and planning efforts such as • Preparing ecology plans to minimize bird hazards, • Writing emergency plans for any incidents associated with aircraft operations, • Developing plans for the handling and storage of hazardous materials, • Writing snow removal plans, • Hot fire drills, • Emergency exercises, in coordination with fire officials, and • Ensuring that contractors working within the AOA abide by rules and regulations that pertain to movement, marking, and voice procedures.

38 Integrating Airport Information Systems Business-critical information Key data elements Metrics Data source Expenditures (actual to budget) Expenditures by object code and budgets by object code (by division) Operating expenditures and capital expenditures per passenger (PAX), enplaned passenger (EP), origin and destination (O&D) passenger, operation, employee Accounts payable records and budget documents Revenue (actual to budget) All revenues by source; budget forecasts by source; sources of revenues (components) include (1) Non-airline/other: other-interest income; federal and state grants; commercial paper and debt proceeds; security reimbursement from Transportation Security Administration (TSA); non-airline (concession revenue, parking revenue, rental car facility revenue, commercial development revenue) (2) Airline: airfield ramp and service charges, landing fees, building and ground rental revenue, terminal rent and charges, passenger facility charges (PFCs), fuel charges and taxes Gross revenue per PAX, EP, O&D, operation, employee Concession revenue per PAX, EP, O&D, square footage of leased space Airline revenue as percentage of gross revenue Non-airline revenue as a percentage of gross revenue Parking revenue per EP, O&D, parking space Ground transportation revenue per EP, O&D, employee Accounts receivable records and budget documents Reserve fund levels Operating, capital, bond, or debt reserves Bond covenant requirements Financial management system; audited financials Accounts receivable Amount of accounts receivable by carrier; percentage of accounts receivable 90 days past due; results of collection efforts elbaviecerstnuoccAAN records and budget documents Annual budget(s) Total operating budget; capital budget and annual debt service requirements Expected total cost per enplanement, per PAX; expected operating revenues-to-debt service ratio (debt service coverage) Accounting division records; financial management software elbairavfoegatnecrep;tbedlatoT rate debt; bond rating Debt-to-capital ratio; debt per EP; debt-to-revenue ratio Accounting division records, financial advisor reports, rating agencies Key rates and charges (1) Landing fee: components of the key data (assuming residual rate- making) are airfield operating and maintenance costs from budget source, annual airfield debt service, miscellaneous airfield revenues by source, number of estimated aircraft landings by certificated weight (2) Terminal rental rate components of the key data are terminal complex square footage by category (such as airline leasable, concession, public, etc,); terminal complex operating and maintenance costs from budget sources; budget forecasted terminal complex revenues by source All metrics using airline costs (cost per enplanement, airline revenue as a percentage of total revenue, etc.) will use these airline rates and charges as a base Accounting division records, financial management software, planning subdivision analyses Table 4-1. Business-critical information for accounting. (continued)

Airport Information 39 Several systems, under development or in full operation, will improve situational awareness for operations at an airport. These systems include ADS-B, Automated Radar Terminal System (ARTS) III, Surface Management System, and ASDE-X. For a detailed narrative on these emerg- ing technologies, see Chapter 2, Current State of the Industry. The Landside division of Operations typically allocates airport-controlled facilities, including remote hard-stand parking, ticket counters, gates, aprons, and baggage facilities. Some airports create spreadsheets after receiving scheduling data from the airlines, OAG, and FIDS. However, some airports use relatively sophisticated gate management software to access and record sched- ules, reallocate gates and aprons, assign gate-related support equipment, and monitor passenger activity passing through the Federal Inspection Services (FIS). This division also ensures that any unauthorized entry through passageways that lead to the AOA is quickly detected and resolved. This division relies heavily on the access control system, including Closed Circuit Television (CCTV), security sensors, Automated Vehicle Identification (AVI), and direct observation by air- port staff. Transponders are issued to vehicles that are part of the system, and billing originates from Finance, based on the type of vehicle and frequency with which that unit passes through the Business-critical information Key data elements Metrics Data source Plan of finance for capital projects (1) Anticipated project costs by project(s): estimated design/construction cost; other anticipated costs including financing costs (2) Project funding by source: anticipated federal grants and PFCs; interest earnings anticipated during construction; debt to be issued, cash, etc. (3) Feasibility: forecasted annual gross revenues during feasibility period Debt-to-capital ratio; debt per EP; debt-to-revenue ratio; projected impact on cost per enplanement; coverage ratios Financial and feasibility studies Advance warning of a possible air carrier bankruptcy Financial reports on airlines; overdue account receivables; substantial decrease in passenger traffic or air operations; costs per enplanement by airline; market share analyses laicnanif enilriA reports (SEC reports); consultant reports; account receivable and cost per enplanement reports from accounting; activity reports from operations division (passenger and flight operations) Traffic statistics (1) PAX data: total passengers; EP; deplaned passengers; connecting passengers by airline; O&D passengers by airline (2) Operations data: aircraft landings by aircraft type; aircraft departures by aircraft type; total aircraft operations; aircraft gate usage (turns) by airline; aircraft gate usage by type of equipment; on-time arrivals/departures by aircraft; deicing time All metrics using passenger counts (PAX, EP, O&D), aircraft operations (landings, takeoffs, total aircraft), or gate usage (operations per gate) Airline self-reporting; operations records of aircraft landings and departures; gate management systems; financial billings Table 4-1. (Continued).

40 Integrating Airport Information Systems airport sensors. The Landside division ensures that all vehicles are in fact using these devices or paying through another manual system. The Ground Transportation division of operations is responsible for monitoring the activity of all commercial vehicles in and around the airport. The responsibilities of this division over- lap considerably with the Landside division, with emphasis on access control systems, tracking of movement, and security of commercial vehicles and their drivers. AVI technology is frequently used to control commercial vehicle movement on airport property, track the number of visits, and generate accurate billing. Business-critical information Key data elements Metrics Data source Purchasing information (1) Requisitions by budgeted amount, actual cost, time in process (2) Contracts for major services by expiration date, budgeted amount, actual cost Efficiency metrics, such as operating costs per employee, cost of delay in acquiring goods or services Contract and purchase tracking records Competitiveness of airport Sampling of rates/fees at similar airports, such as landing fees, terminal rent per square foot, baggage system fees, train fees, costs per enplaned passenger, operating costs per employee Comparative metrics, cost per enplanement, landings fees, etc., to gauge strength of competition for air service Airport industry benchmarking surveys, staff research, airline reports Risk and safety information Accident rates by division; insurance claims by number and amount; injuries by type; vehicle damage by type and amount; workers' comp claims by type and amount; trend graphs Costs per accident; injury rates per activity; injury/accident trends Risk and insurance records Table 4-2. Business-critical information for administration. Business-critical information Key data elements Metrics Data source Personnel statistics Personnel budget (total and by division); budgeted full-time employee positions (total and by division); filled full-time employee positions (total and by division); contract employee positions (total and by division); actual overtime-to- budgeted Total annual PAX per full-time employee; labor cost per full-time employee; maintenance expense per full-time employee; non- airline revenue per full-time employee; operating net revenues per full-time employee; revenue per full-time employee; total airport cost per full-time employee HR records Training performance measures Number of on-site employee training classes, average class evaluation rating, compliance training Training costs per full-time employee; compliance training by employee HR records Personnel actions Grievances; turnover; personnel actions (disciplinary, drug and safety test results, etc.) Turnover ratios; costs of turnover per new employee; trends of significant personnel actions Finance and/or HR records Table 4-3. Business-critical information for human resources.

Typically, the Landside division presides over any emergency communication system. Using digital telephone switches and voice over internet protocol (VOIP), the communications activi- ties under this division’s control include paging, relaying tower information to interested parties, processing work requests, emergency notification, and CCTV and access control monitoring. Gate and counter assignments can also originate from the communications center. Airport parking is typically the responsibility of Operations. Parking activities can also be accom- plished through a contractor or concessionaire but are typically operated by airport employees. Facility count systems provide line supervisors and senior management with real-time occu- pancy levels of each parking lot and enable staff to adjust staffing levels in response. As a division, Parking also uses various techniques to record the license plate data of all cars that remain overnight in the parking facilities. Data are typically collected with electronic handheld devices that record plate number, location, and first time and date of occupancy. Data from these devices can be downloaded into a database available to many other divisions within an airport, providing assis- tance to the public and an additional level of revenue control and security. Significant Metrics from Operations Business-Critical Information Along with the Planning, Properties, and Accounting divisions, Landside shares an interest in relationships between passengers moving through an airport complex and time spent while there. Hence, the public’s dwell times in concession areas, ticket counters, parking lot entrances and exits, and airport-controlled gates are key indicators noted by Operations, which, when used properly, become useful tools for staffing, reallocation of resources, reassignment of facilities, tenant notification, deployment of police, and dispatch for additional vehicles. Airport Information 41 Business-critical information Key data elements Metrics Data source Systems reliability information and security statistics (1) Reliability statistics: IT equipment downtime hours by system; help desk calls per system (2) Security information: number of unauthorized attempts to access IT systems (successful and unsuccessful) Return on investment of various systems; systems security trends; systems reliability trends IT records IT performance and maintenance (1) IT maintenance: number of information system ports maintained; number of FIDS screens, jetways, visual paging displays, baggage carousels, and flight departure displays maintained; personal computers maintained per staff; network servers maintained per staff (2) IT performance: percentage of time network is available; number of personal computer problems resolved Efficiency metrics, such as percentage of systems downtime; cost and time for system recovery in event of disaster IT records Amount of unauthorized or personal use of computers Number of instances of inappropriate email content or internet use; percentage of network capacity devoted to personal use Percentage of systems capacity available at peak periods; percentage of employees engaged in inappropriate internet use IT records Table 4-4. Business-critical information for IT/Telecom.

42 Integrating Airport Information Systems Tenant lease data (1) Leased space: amount and location of square footage of space leased by tenant by type (exclusive, non-exclusive, common use, etc.) (2) Lease rentals: annual space rentals by tenant; other annual lease payment obligations by tenant (3) Lease terms: term (length) of lease by tenant; usage requirements Public space square footage per PAX; return on investment calculations; vacant-to-total space ratio; airline revenue as a percentage of total revenue Lease summaries with contract terms from Properties division, CAD Concessions data (1) Leased space: leased square footage by concession type (food and beverage, news and gift, duty free, advertising, hotels, services, etc.) (2) Concession revenues: gross concession revenues by concession type; net concession revenues by type; minimum annual guarantee by concession location or lessee (3) Other: number and type of concessions; concession locations that will be available for lease by month; number of customer complaints by concession location Concession space per PAX, per EP, per O&D PAX; concession revenue (total, food and beverage, news and gift, advertising, services, other) per PAX, per EP, per O&D, per square foot of terminal space; non-airline revenue as a percentage of total revenue Tenant self-reporting, lease summaries, point- of-sale systems; accounts receivable records Business-critical information Key data elements Metrics Data source Table 4-5. Business-critical information for properties. Security has become a critical component of Operations. Because unauthorized entry onto the AOA has security and financial implications, trends in the number of unauthorized entries by tenant, location, and time are valuable indicators of the effectiveness of the air- port’s security program. Working with Accounting, constant review of metrics (such as revenue required per period of use for loading bridges and other equipment compared with actual utilization history) can result in modification of charges to ensure full cost recovery. Similar analysis can occur as rev- enues from commercial vehicles are compared with actual cost so that the airport can provide facilities and support services to this segment of the airport vehicle population. Parking metrics, such as revenues per O&D passenger, usage analyses, and net revenues per parking space (return- on-investment analyses), are valuable in the planning and financing of facilities. The Operations divisions, as well as the Planning and Accounting divisions, are interested in the percentage uti- lization of such assets as runways, taxiways, and aprons related to wind direction, time of day, and air carrier hub complex scheduling. From this information, maintenance of such facilities can be scheduled, planning for additional facilities initiated, and resources reallocated. Similarly, monitoring of ceiling and visibility conditions enables the Airside division to anticipate the required activation of Category (CAT) II and CAT III procedures and to alert other airport agen- cies of potential airport delays. Finally, contractor performance records become important when trend analysis suggests poor safety practices are evident.

Airport Information 43 All these metrics require accurate and timely access to the Finance and Administration busi- ness-critical information presented in Tables 4-6 through 4-9. Maintenance Overview The Maintenance functional area includes the following divisions: Facility Maintenance, Maintenance Control, Fleet Maintenance, and Materials Management. Maintenance repre- sents the largest single operating expense normally present at an airport. To manage this func- tional area efficiently, airports may have several processes—on occasion, automated, and sometimes manual—in place to track information such as costs, time to complete tasks, labor expended, status of projects in the pipeline, energy consumption, in-commission rates, inven- tories, accident history, and so on. At smaller airports, these actions are accomplished by indi- vidual line divisions. The Facility Maintenance division normally has the largest staff on an airport and will include the Electrical division, Airfield and Grounds, Building and Plant Maintenance, and Custodial Services. Tracking of these workforces includes data such as labor dollars expended overall, overtime, budgetary comparisons (including year-to-date actual against Business-critical information Key data elements Metrics Data source Runway availability Hours of availability for runways, jetways Percentage of time runways are available for aircraft, percentage of jetways available for airline use, etc. Staff notations Equipment availability Equipment designation (e.g., aircraft rescue and fire fighting truck 1, emergency generator 7, etc.) In commission, out of commission Fleet maintenance, FAA, direct observation Weather data Current and forecast weather conditions; wind velocity, snow and rain amounts, ice accumulation, temperatures, etc. Ceiling and visibility that falls below prescribed minimums; weather conditions that trigger response plans; runway temperature sensors that indicate freezing conditions U.S. Weather Service, flight service station, airline meteorological department, contract weather services, runway visual range, wind indicators, etc. Airline schedules (arrival, departure) Gate, airline, flight number, tail number, arrival and departure times Ratio of scheduled arrivals and departures to actual (on-time arrival and departure) FIDS, direct tie into airline databases, paper records, gate operations application software, OAG, FAA secondary radar Contractor performance Contractor's name, contact information, on-site supervisor, contract terms regarding operations on the AOA, location of work to be performed tcerid,VTCC,tcatnoCAN observation Current airfield, terminal, and roadway conditions Weather (wind, temperatures, rain, snow, ice), runway braking action, safety alerts,; pavement temperatures, chill factor, etc. Critical operating information Actual observations; systems embedded in pavement that report temperature, ice accumulation, etc. Table 4-6. Business-critical information for airside.

44 Integrating Airport Information Systems Business-critical information Key data elements Metrics Data source Information of import with a shift log that has been recorded by the operations officer over a shift period evitarrangninnuRANdetsilstnedicnI done by shift supervisor or operations officer Delays that occur at cashier booths, ticket counters, commercial vehicle lanes, and departure levels; occupancy levels of parking lots; TSA lines, FIS areas, etc. Queuing times at parking entrance and exit lanes, ticket counters, concession areas, security check points, baggage claims, FIS area, etc.; parking lot name, lot capacity, current car count Number of cars, passengers, customers, etc., multiplied by minutes of dwell time provides metric of delay time per minute, hour, or other unit Parking facility count systems, roadway sensors, direct observation, CCTV, etc. Public complaints, how or if conflict is resolved Written and/or verbal complaints, severity of complaint, outcome, action taken Number of complaints per shift, day, or other time period; degree of severity of complaint by time period; time in which to respond to complainant Information counter, suggestion boxes, police reports, operations logs, citizens' direct contact with representative of the airport Current airfield, terminal, and roadway conditions Snow accumulation, temperature, wind speed and direction, etc. ;snoitavresbolautcAAN systems embedded in pavement that report temperature, ice accumulation; airlines, FAA, U.S. Weather Service, etc. Unauthorized entry onto the air operations area Door or gate location, time of penetration, company and individual's name and authorization level, time to respond to violation, etc. Number of violations per period, duration of penetration CCTV, FIDS, controlled-access computerized systems and associated databases, direct observations, etc. Gate, apron, support equipment, and counter availability; particularly important in international arrivals facility or at airports that have common-use gates Gate designation, gate capacity, apron configuration, gate schedules, airline arrival/departure information Dwell times at gate, counters, etc. CCTV, FIDS, direct observations, preexisting schedules, FAA secondary radar, telephone, direct contact with airline user, etc. Utilization of facilities (gates, apron, 400 Hz, preconditioned air, ticket counters, FIS, etc.) Duration of use, number of passengers, weight and type of aircraft, company name, domestic or international, signatory vs. non- signatory user, rate per use, etc. Revenue and cost per passenger, per system, and per unit or location CCTV, FIDS, direct observations, preexisting schedules, FAA secondary radar, telephone, direct contact with airline user, etc. Contractor's performance in non-aircraft-movement areas ,noitavresbotceriDANstnedicniforebmuN engineering division Commercial vehicle movement through the terminal complex Company name, date, vehicle number, time, per-trip charge, vehicle condition, insurance company name and amount of coverage, etc. Cost per trip multiplied by number of trips per unit of time AVI systems, ticket dispensers, cab starters, self reporting by companies under contract with airport, direct observation relating to condition, etc. Table 4-7. Business-critical information for landside.

Airport Information 45 Business-critical information Key data elements Data source Availability of ground transportation (1) Traffic flow: taxi-cab, hotel shuttles, rental car shuttles, remote parking shuttles, limos (2) Availability: taxi-cab, hotel shuttles, rental car shuttles, remote parking shuttles, limos (3) Staffing and queuing of ground transportation (4) Weather: snow removal, closures, ice, etc. Commercial vehicles available per period of time; wait times for taxis, shuttles, etc. Direct observation, CCTV, AVI Employee bus frequency Time between departures for employee bus transportation, employee parking, employee vehicles Number of vehicles passing a point per period of time (headway) Direct observation, CCTV, AVI Congestion in commercial vehicle lanes Commercial vehicle throughput; number of vehicles in commercial holding lot ,noitavresbotceriDAN CCTV, police reports, operations logs, AVI, controlled access systems, etc. Metrics Table 4-8. Business-critical information for ground transportation. Business-critical information Key data elements Metrics Data source Inventory Number of spaces, number of cars, license plate, origin of car, location, car (date and time first noted) Activity per parking lot, facility count system Facility count systems, manual tabulation, CCTV, induction loop counters, video detection, ultrasonic counting devices, RF transmitters, space occupancy detectors Number of parking transactions processed Transaction time, cashier inventory, and cash receipts eunevergnikraPeuneveR control system, kiosks Time incidents Queuing time, exit wait time, cashier wait time, roadway congestion, accidents causing wait times on and off airport, road conditions and closures, snow removal progress reports Wait time for exit Cashier reports, CCTV, roadway congestion yawdaor,VTCCesnepxe,semittiaWsyaledciffartfoecruoS congestion, incident reports Passenger wait times for terminal bus, rental car emittiaW Transactions Ticket transactions, transaction journals, audit trails, register's transaction log, number of cars (loop detector sensor), cash receipts, cash inventory gnikrapdetamotuAeuneveR revenue control systems installed in each booth Sum of incidents by date, shift, and time rosivrepustfihStfihsrepsmelborP Table 4-9. Business-critical information for parking.

46 Integrating Airport Information Systems yearly budgets), recurrent training requirements, and license currency (of elevators, escala- tors, fire extinguishers), to name a few. Software applications exist that can combine not only the facility maintenance activities, but also those of materials management (supply) and fleet maintenance. At larger airports, the Facility Maintenance division is directed through a Maintenance Control Center. Using a work order system, this group can establish priorities, track work in progress, allocate material costs and labor to appropriate cost centers, and schedule work to be performed. Many application software products exist that automate these business-critical elements to handle what at any given time can be as many as 1,500 work requests in various stages of planning, execution, and inspection. This division is responsible to appropriately code work requests that ultimately feed into the airport’s cost accounting system and rates and charges calculations. Additionally, preventive maintenance is essential in any good main- tenance program. This requires the extraction from manufacturer’s specifications of all required maintenance tasks for equipment owned by the airport, with inspections and repairs completed on a scheduled basis. Generally, the rolling stock used by the airport, as well as certain stationary equipment such as electrical generators, are the responsibility of a Fleet Maintenance division. Management might use fleet maintenance application software that can track in-commission rates, original cost of acquisition, recommended preventive maintenance schedules, fleet replacement pro- grams, and estimated times required to perform types of repair. Supervisors can determine from these systems not only the status of the equipment, but also how efficiently staff is performing their duties. The responsibility to requisition, receive, code, value, store, issue, and replace parts and materials is frequently assigned to a separate Materials Management division. Working with the other Maintenance divisions, items expensed out of supply ultimately show up in cost account- ing systems and in the rates and charges calculation. The Materials Management division tracks its own activities and works closely with Maintenance Control in planning a mainte- nance project, ordering material, and storing materials received until the project is scheduled to occur. Significant Metrics from Maintenance Business-Critical Information Facility Maintenance uses numerous metrics to manage their areas of responsibility. Such metrics might include ratios regarding budget to actual in the area of salaries, energy con- sumption, contract services, and overtime. This division has high exposure regarding accident rates and will, therefore, monitor injury rates by classification, as well as workers compensa- tion claim trends. Utility consumption lends itself to the development of metrics to suggest the efficiency of the division’s energy conservation program. Such metrics might include nat- ural gas, electricity, and water consumed per square foot of building space. Also of interest is comparison of water usage by month and by year related to irrigation on the airport. Finally, benchmarking custodial service cost per square foot of space maintained can indicate the effi- ciency of the program and might drive the decision to contract out parts of the work to more efficient operators. Because Maintenance Control plans, schedules, and allocates limited resources and tracks and ensures the quality of completed work, metrics are used to help achieve these ends. Time for completion of work orders, labor hours expended by skill set, time to respond to high- priority repairs, and costs associated with performed work are examples of information crit- ical to the operation of the airport. Many airports use a form of telemetry or hardwiring to

transmit equipment data to a central monitoring point. The current status of elevators, esca- lators, and other mechanical systems that must remain operational are examples of this new data transfer. Those responsible for maintaining an airport’s mobile equipment can use metrics to collec- tively measure the status of the fleet and the efficiency of the division’s staff. Many of the met- rics have been developed by agencies that operate fleets of vehicles numbering in the thousands. Sophisticated organizations have developed metrics that combine historical cost of a vehicle, its age, and total miles (or hours), and, from this, they can develop formulas for vehicle replace- ment. More standard metrics include in-commission rates, operating cost per mile, and stan- dard times allocated for specific tasks, such as brake repair or engine overhaul. Inventory values above a prescribed level are a red flag to management that too much might be invested in unnecessary inventory. Supply specialists need to analyze appropriate stock levels to ensure that critical parts are always on hand or readily available through local vendors. Key concepts to capture include minimum stock levels, reorder points, historical consumption, and the cost to store items. All these metrics require accurate and timely access to the Finance and Administration business- critical information presented in Tables 4-10 through 4-13. Engineering Overview The Engineering functional area includes the following divisions: Design/Construction, Envi- ronmental, and Planning. These divisions are responsible for an airport’s ongoing construction program, which normally represents the largest set of (capital) expenditures occurring on an air- port. These divisions also provide technical support for the other line divisions of the airport. It is not unusual for a medium hub airport to be involved in a capital program with a value that will exceed a half billion dollars over the life of the program. Such programs are often made up of scores of projects that each cost millions. Monitoring and control of the projects benefit from a certain degree of information technology. Probably the largest user of computerized data, the Design and Construction division is adopt- ing CAD systems to maintain and control plans, files, and specifications. For years, airports have investigated the feasibility of digitizing all physical characteristics, which might include topographical features, physical structures, utilities—types and locations, building footprints, legal descriptions, and manufacturers’ specifications including recommended maintenance pro- cedures for mechanical, electrical, and plumbing systems, and making these databases available for integration with all functional units of an airport. To date, few if any airports have succeeded, although other entities such as the U.S. Armed Forces have been partially successful in this effort. In a fully integrated airport, Real Estate could have all metes and bounds descriptions along with lease terms included in a layer of the graphics database; Maintenance could easily access mechan- ical systems with part numbers and recommended maintenance procedures for repair purposes; and Operations could dispatch fire trucks under zero visibility conditions to points along a run- way depending entirely on digitized depictions of the airfield integrated with satellite ground positioning systems for vehicles and aircraft locations. Some vendors have developed software to control and track Capital Improvement Programs, particularly expenditures. Some systems go so far as to monitor contractor performance covered by the prevailing wage requirements. Unfortunately, few of these systems have been fully Airport Information 47

48 Integrating Airport Information Systems Business-critical information Key data elements Metrics Data source Work reported on shift logs that represents information of importance to senior management (e.g., major water leak) Conditional variations from normal deemed significant ,ecnanetniamgnidliuBAN equipment sensors tcejboybserutidnepxelanoisiviDtegduB code Percentage above or below budget, cost to maintain per passenger per square foot of leasable space, cost per square foot Budget documents, general ledger lautca-ot-tegdubfooitaR)lennosrep(lautcaottegduB expenditures (e.g., after 6 months, 44% of approved budget expended) Budget documents, general ledger dnastrap(lautcaottegduB material) Ratio of budget-to-actual expenditures Budget documents, general ledger lautcaottegdubfooitaR)secivrestcartnoc(lautcaottegduB expenditures Budget documents, general ledger lautcaottegdubfooitaR).cte,latipac(lautcaottegduB expenditures Budget documents, general ledger Accident history Number of accidents, severity of injury, cost per incident; OSHA violations The number of accidents as a ratio of the number of employees engaged in a craft; workers' compensation claims compared to national standards; OSHA violations compared to other airports HR databases; facility maintenance internal records; OSHA Personnel statistics Number of positions filled, budgeted, approved Percentage of positions filled HR Training requirements and records of completion Hours of training required by employee per period per skill level Percentage complete Training specialist within division, HR Preventive maintenance program Number of items requiring inspection, frequency of inspection, name of agency qualified to perform inspections (e.g., perform inspections of such equipment as fire extinguishers, elevators, escalators, boilers, chillers, transformers, etc.) Date inspection due compared to actual date, percentage complete, etc. Databases maintained by maintenance Utility usage Period of use; unit of measurement (gallons, kilowatt hours, cubic feet, etc.) Electricity, water, gas used per square foot, power factor, etc. Meter readings, telemetry, etc. Pending work orders Total work orders, estimated time to complete, work requests, material on order Ratio of work requests to pending work orders; ratio of work orders completed in current period compared to similar period one year prior; ratio of work order by craft compared to number of employees in particular section Maintenance control, HR, industrial standards and manufacturers' recommendations delineating times required to complete specific tasks Status of critical equipment Equipment designation, location, criticality classification, status (on/off), etc. Percentage on line Incident reports from maintenance staff Table 4-10. Business-critical information for facility maintenance.

Airport Information 49 Business-critical information Key data elements Metrics Data source Established priority policy (e.g., airfield safety, terminal public areas) erayllaususeitiroirPAN established by senior management and provide direction for the scheduling of resources Number of systems maintained Bag claim conveyors, matrix readers, parking ticket spitters, parking toll booths, etc. AN Total work orders in progress, status, time to completion, etc. Work order, number, description of task, date initiated, estimated time to complete, work orders completed per staff Ratio of pending work orders to those completed during a period of time, etc. Manually and/or via automated work-order system Incidents from shift logs (incidents that occurred over an 8-hour period gathered from the perspectives of different divisions) rosivrepusybderetnEAN on duty; may be in retrievable flat file format or in written log Safety related work orders Work order number, description, anticipated completion date AN Airfield, terminal, roadway status that might impact airport operation Runway status, roadway status, status of various parts of terminal yllaitinisetanigirOAN from division level but flows to maintenance control for scheduling and implementation Upcoming maintenance events aivroyllaunaMeludehcsecnanetniamevitneverP software aivroyllaunaMANsenildaedecivreSyreviledecivreS software Expiring agreements; service over/under expected level Service level agreements Expiration date of contract compared to current date Manually or via software Table 4-11. Business-critical information for maintenance control. integrated into the Financial Management Information Systems of airports. An optimum pack- age would integrate accounts payable, description of the CIP originally envisioned in a Master Plan, budgetary provisions of the bond issuance Official Statement (if applicable), Plan of Finance, asset journal, and compliance records by contractor and then merge engineer’s estimates with actual bids received, sources and uses of funds as adjusted, and change orders as they are proposed. Software exists for project management. From the earliest renditions of Program Evaluation and Review Technique to today’s most sophisticated, proprietary program management soft- ware products, airports continue to adapt these improved management tools to control their construction programs. Engineering and construction projects at airports also have to consider the environmental impact of design and implementation. At some airports, a separate Environmental division plans, implements, and maintains systems designed to minimize the impact of the airport on its surrounding environs. Several tools are available to meet these goals. Airports have successfully integrated parts of FAA’s radar tracking systems with ground sensors that can measure aircraft- generated sound levels, temperature, ambient noise levels, and wind conditions. Output of these systems often includes noise contour maps, single-event occurrence reports, perceived noise level calculations, and correlation of noise complaints from an individual with a specific occur- rence. Other systems designed to monitor air and groundwater quality, while not as sophisti- cated or as automated as those related to noise, are commonly used at airports.

Engineering’s Planning division specializes in using forecast data and comparing it with existing capacities of airport systems to calculate the physical requirements of the airport. Examples of data- bases commonly used include those that support the airport’s Master Plan, parking facility count systems, Federal Census Bureau, and National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems. Additionally, Planning uses the Design/Construction CAD system to develop layouts for apron parking of aircraft, circulation patterns for public parking lots, and concession placement within terminal facilities. Significant Metrics from Engineering Business-Critical Information Metrics available from Engineering information include the status of a design or construc- tion project shown as a percentage of completion. This information is essential, particularly when a project such as site preparation must be completed before the next phase of a program. Using project management techniques, engineers can calculate costs per day to accelerate the design or construction process and, by doing so, make informed decisions as to whether an invest- ment provides the necessary return. Senior management is particularly interested in federal funding levels as a percentage of the total project cost because it is not uncommon for additional 50 Integrating Airport Information Systems Business-critical information Key data elements Metrics Data source In-commission rates by type of vehicle Total number of vehicles, number out of commission, vehicle classification Ratio of in-commission to total Superintendent (fleet maintenance or designee) Critical equipment status Total number of vehicles defined as critical, number out of commission teelf(tnednetnirepuSAN maintenance or designee) Budget (budget-to-actual) parts, materials, capital , etc. Dollars expended, date, dollars budgeted, etc. Ratio of budgeted to actual Various sources: time clocks, paper records, all flowing through either Finance or HR Personnel statistics Hours worked, labor rate, Federal Insurance Contributions Act (FICA), retirement contribution, positions approved, positions filled, etc. Percent vacancy HR database. Many airports have centralized time clocks which record and calculate data Contractual services: cost of services, expiration date, year-to-date expenditures, etc. Company name, contract value, contract term, work description, etc. Budget to actual Finance Capital expenditures (rolling stock) Budgeted amount, expenditures to date, etc. Budget to actual Finance Parts and material expenditures Budgeted amount, expenditures to date, etc. Budget to actual Finance Positions filled, budgeted positions Approved budgeted amount, positions filled Percentage filled Operations and maintenance budget Approved vacancies for hire Senior management's approved positions (may be different than approved budget) ,esabatadRHAN normally generated from senior management, sometimes external limits (e.g., agency- wide hiring freeze) krow,stropertnedicnIsmelborplacinahcemneeserofnUemitnwoddennalpnU requests, tenants, public, etc. Underutilized vehicles Hours or miles driven Utilization compared to industry standards Fleet records Table 4-12. Business-critical information for fleet maintenance.

Airport Information 51 Business-critical information Key data elements Metrics Data source Inventory valuation Warehouse units, value of each type of unit, bench stock inventory, date Number of units multiplied by value Supply inventories Accuracy of inventory Valuation prior to manual inventory by commodity vs actual valuation confirmed by inventory process Comparison of results of perpetual inventory to physical inventory Periodic or perpetual inventories Incidents reported on shift logs Sum of incidents by date, shift, and time ecnanetniamgnidliuB Budget to actual: personnel, contractual services, parts and material Vendor management and analysis can pinpoint costly off-contract buying Ratio of budgeted to actual Finance Personnel statistics Number of employees Percentage vacancy HR Personnel statistics Approved vacancies for hire Comparison of approved positions to budgeted positions HR Excess or obsolete inventory Inventory transactions, carrying costs, invoice/purchase order Time in inventory without activity Finance and/or supply Table 4-13. Business-critical information for materials management. federal dollars to become available at the end of a fiscal year. While sometimes misleading, the percentage of change orders in both dollar value and number provides insight into how well the project has been managed or the completeness of the plans and specifications. CAD systems lend themselves to numerous calculations and metrics due to the nature of digitization. Formulas are easily developed to calculate total square footage of a leased area, revenues per square foot of concession space, and number of turns per space in a public parking facility. Table 4-14 lists business-critical information for Engineering. Larger airports have automated noise, water, and air quality data collection devices that can develop a set of metrics that monitor and analyze the status of each of these areas. For example, criteria for noise violations, decibel (dB) level, and time above threshold can be calculated and reported to managers so that immediate remedial steps can be taken. Air quality and water qual- ity data can be compared with defined acceptable standards to determine whether corrective action is necessary. For example, particulates per million levels might represent a violation of the State Implementation Plan, and thus result in the introduction of new regulations regarding types of vehicle operated on airport property. Smaller airports might rely on the number of public complaints about noise to determine the success of their noise abatement program. Table 4-15 lists business-critical information for Environmental. The Planning division might use many of the metrics referenced above, as well as many devel- oped by the Finance and Administration area, as some of their tools to predict the future. Using the financial data from the Master Plan as the base year, personnel can track annual operations, enplanements, vehicle traffic, and so forth to validate the original findings of the Master Plan study. As conditions change and demand for facilities rises and falls, capital and financial pro- grams are adjusted accordingly. Table 4-16 lists business-critical information for Planning. Security Overview Although many airports place the oversight of police, law enforcement, and some, if not all, security activities in a division reporting to the Operations functional area, the increasing impor- tance of these activities has caused some airports to create separate departments for this function.

52 Integrating Airport Information Systems Business-critical information Key data elements Metrics Data source ,noitpircsed,srebmuntcejorPPIC engineer's estimates, source of funding, change orders, etc. Percentage complete, current status to budget, status of budgeted federal funding level to current projection, engineer's estimate to actual Engineering and Finance Construction and design schedules Original estimate, current projection, liquidated damage/bonus provisions Cost per calendar day to accelerate project Contract (contactor, architect, or engineer); specifications; field engineer's estimates; capital budget; etc. FAA grant status; state and local, if applicable Project description, grant approval (yes/no), percentage funded, funds received to date Ratio of federal funding to total cost of project; ratio of original plan of finance, projections for federal funding to current anticipated funding FAA, congressional delegation, airport's lobbyists, bids, and expenditures to date on federally funded projects Change orders (approved, pending, disapproved) Project number, change order number, price of change, status (approved, disapproved, pending), original requestor, scale of importance Ratio (percentage) of the sum of all change orders in project-to- base contract price Originated from one of several sources: tenant, engineering group, field engineer, FAA (regulatory change), etc. Construction and design contracts, grant requests, and other obligations of the airport that require approval from higher authority (e.g., council, board). Schedules for such submissions should be available to senior management Name and action required for project, grant, contract, etc. ngisedgnireenignE and construction Plans, specifications, utility depiction, legal descriptions (metes and bounds, etc.). Documents frequently written using CAD software Digitized points, plans, alphanumeric Infinite potential using CAD (e.g., when terminal building physical characteristics are digitized, calculation of square feet within any given boundary is easily calculated) Existing plans and specifications, contractor's drawings, manufacturers, master plans, etc. Engineering-related critical items (e.g., federal, state, and local regulations mandate corrective action for discrepancies deemed unsafe or environmentally unacceptable) Project name, description of requirement, estimated completion date, etc. ngisedgnireenignE and construction Table 4-14. Business-critical information for engineering. For the purposes of this Handbook, Security is a separate functional area due to its critical nature and the need for senior management to have immediate access to the key information. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is a federal department that oversees the TSA, all federal security issues, and all customs and immigration activities. Although airports do not have direct access to sensitive DHS data, they work closely with DHS to oversee and influence these areas. Similarly, significant actions by law enforcement officers (LEOs) are essential infor- mation to those whose responsibilities include the safety and security of the traveling public and all airport facilities. Security issues affect operational planning and budgets. Customer wait times are a significant concern to airports and airlines, especially when it increases passenger frustra- tion and causes traffic flow issues.

Airport Information 53 Business-critical information Key data elements Metrics Data source Flight tracking information Flight number, altitude, location, company name, etc. -thgilfemit-laer-raeNAN tracking software that ties into FAA's secondary radar system The number of noise violations based on FAA Part 150 criteria Digitized noise contour maps, single-event and multiple-event decibel levels, flight number, altitude, location, company name, etc. Number of events per quarter, per year; duration of violation over maximum allowed decibels Devices installed on and around airports that display flight activity and single-event noise levels that occur during aircraft passage; public complaints; FAA radar Noise complaints Number of public inquiries on noise issues; number of noise complaints by area Percentage of public inquiries on noise issues responded to within 10 business days of inquiry; percentage increase/decrease in noise complaints In-person, email, or recorded phone messages Water-quality or air-quality compliance Information is collected, sometimes with sensors or with actual measurements taken by staff Water, air, and/or noise measurements out of tolerances established by regulation, permits, etc.; status of corrective actions Storm sewer, potable water, air sampling devices, etc. Table 4-15. Business-critical information for environmental. Business-critical information Key data elements Metrics Data source Forecast data Current enplanements; aircraft operations; vehicles on roadway; parking occupancy; passengers by terminal by 15-minute segment, etc.; maximum airfield practical annual capacities (PANCAP); maximum number of cars on roadway per 15- minute segment; maximum throughput per 15 minutes in terminal; peak parking occupancy possible per 15 minutes; utility capacities (water, gas, electric, sewage, storm water); forecast enplanements and aircraft operations; future parking requirements; utility requirements; terminal requirements; and roadway needs Percentage anticipated rate of growth in enplanements, aircraft operations, passengers, vehicles, etc., over forecast period Forecasts come from the following sources: master plan, plan of finance, capital improvement program, Part 150 study, FAA forecasts, chamber of commerce forecasts, Department of Commerce, airline forecasts, etc. Development permits Number of development permits reviewed for aviation impacts Number and type of developments with potential airfield impact From tenants and city/county building permit databases Current airport layout plan (ALP) Depiction of runways, taxiway, Wind Rose, planned land uses; existing and planned physical facilities ,nalpretsaMAN planametric databases, photography, National Weather Service, FAA, etc. Table 4-16. Business-critical information for planning.

Security information is gathered and processed manually. Certain reporting is required by local, state, or federal law; for example, the number of arrests made and how they are handled must be recorded per state and/or federal law. Passenger wait times at screening might be tracked by Operations personnel, customer service staff, and/or from TSA reports available on the Internet. Wait times for international arrivals processing can be manually tracked by Operations or customer service staff. TSA or DHS direc- tives are usually manually tracked and significant ones transmitted to senior staff. Controlled access is mandated federally by Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) 1542, and fed- eral agents inspect access practices and issue fines. Controlled access is vital to prevent crimes and terrorism. Controlled access includes an approved badge, which requires fingerprinting and a 10-year criminal history, and security access control systems that allow only authorized per- sonnel to access the secured areas of the airport. Badge requirements, including renewals, depend on the type of airport; authorization to the Security Identification Display Area (SIDA) requires additional training and clearances. Perimeter access also requires controlled access systems. Law enforcement records and record-keeping requirements and standards depend on whether the LEOs are employed by the airport, city, or state, and the rules of that employer. Information available to security and LEOs includes controlled access data, National Crime Information Cen- ter data, and State Crime Information Centers data. Airport Security might use the following types of systems: • Operations daily logs, • Police incident reports, • TSA website, • Controlled access systems, and • Badge systems. Having budget, facilities, and operational information readily available and easy to manipulate improves the Security area’s ability to respond quickly to incidents and customer service prob- lems or engage in contingency planning. The ability to enter logs and other written information into a system that organizes and categorizes the information and allows it to be easily accessed at the desktop of senior management would facilitate senior management’s ability to have appro- priate information for rapid decision-making, identify anomalies, and take proactive action. Significant Metrics from Security Business-Critical Information The critical business information generated in the functional area of Security allows senior management to determine critical customer service metrics as well as assess the current security environment. TSA alerts, contacts, directives, and threat assessments must be promptly analyzed and can require immediate response. Metrics that provide budget and operational impacts per- mit management to understand and address those aspects. Metrics such as passenger security wait times and international arrival delay times focus management on the highest priority cus- tomer issues and provide the framework for planning and problem resolution. Table 4-17 lists business-critical information for Security. Public Relations Overview Customer complaints and media contacts can indicate areas that need management attention. The number and type of customer complaints and media contacts are usually tracked manually but can be entered into and tracked by customer service/response software. 54 Integrating Airport Information Systems

This information comes from many sources and is difficult to gather or track with automated systems. Most information in this area is gathered manually from staff notes or complaint cards and processed manually into a report for senior management. A few airports are beginning to use customer complaint service software to track and manage complaints and responses. If this information could be automatically transmitted to the airport divisions or staff who can resolve the source of the complaint or address the budget and planning issues raised by the complaint, airports would function more effectively and could proactively address problems. Air service information and indications of new or expanded services drive facilities and oper- ational planning, impact capital needs, and can affect operating budget significantly. Airline requests for new or expanded service are usually tracked manually and conveyed to senior man- agement as soon as possible. Data on existing air service, such as number of airlines, routes, fre- quencies, fleet mix, and airfares, can be tracked manually and reported to senior management regularly. Staff might track new or pending aviation legislation or regulations and give the infor- mation to senior management as needed. Airport Information 55 Business-critical information Key data elements Metrics Data source Police/LEO Shift log/incident or significant law enforcement activity Incident or significant law enforcement activity Critical information Shift log/incident or daily police reports Training records Successful completion of required training Total hours per employee spent in training per required subject Personnel records Screening wait times and delays Length of passenger wait times by screening location by hour; number of open (manned) screening stations by hour; TSA staffing levels by hour and location Passenger wait times TSA, airport terminal operations, passenger services U.S. Customs and Border Protection (airport security coordinates and monitors) Processing wait times and delays for international arrivals Length of international passenger wait times for processing per hour; number of open (manned) customs and immigration processing stations per hour International arrivals delays Customs and immigration, operations, passenger services Homeland/Airport Security DHS alerts Contacts by TSA/DHS Critical information TSA staff or industry alerts New security directives (major changes) TSA/DHS directives; proposed changes to approved security plan Percentage impact to budget; operational impacts TSA staff or industry alerts Breach of access or perimeter control systems Details of breach (who, where, when, and how) Operational and financial impact Access control systems, perimeter control systems, security camera analytics Table 4-17. Business-critical information for security.

Significant Metrics from Public Relations Business-Critical Information Customer service is a major issue for airport management and is critical to how the airport is viewed by the community, the traveling public, connecting passengers who might have a choice of airports, and public officials. Metrics derived from the Public Relations functional area can help to resolve service issues, prevent customer frustration, and proactively plan and manage the changing environment of an airport. Using the data in trend metrics, usage reports, and planning analyses allows senior management to reduce delays, increase passenger satisfac- tion, and budget resources more effectively. Table 4-18 lists business-critical information for Public Relations. 56 Integrating Airport Information Systems Business-critical information Key data elements Metrics Data source Complaints by issue Number of customer complaints by issue Trends, complaints per airport process Passenger service records and complaint- tracking systems goltcatnoCsdnerTeussiybstcatnocenohpaideMseussidnastcatnocaideM Airline requests for new or expanded facilities Letters or calls regarding new or expanded facilities by airline Usage (turns per gate) by airline; return on investment of new facilities; airport-caused delays resulting from facilities or equipment problems Air service development contacts Quality of community airline service Number of airlines, airline routes and frequencies, aircraft types and fleet mix, airline competition and airfares Changes in airline service per period Staff or consultants reports, operations division reports, industry newsletters and study data New or pending aviation legislation or regulations New federal legislation; new federal regulations or notices of rule- making affecting aviation Potential impact analysis, trend analysis Industry emails, newsletters, alerts to government affairs staff Table 4-18. Business-critical information for public relations.

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TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Report 13: Integrating Airport Information Systems is designed to help airport managers and information technology professionals address issues associated with integrating airport information systems. A summary of the efforts associated with the development of ACRP Report 13 was published online as ACRP Web-Only Document 1: Analysis and Recommendations for Developing Integrated Airport Information Systems.

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